Since the first transatlantic submarine cable system, TAT-1, went into service on 25 September 1956, there have been 26 submarine cable systems accross the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the transatlantic submarine cable systems have been retired of communications service.
Now, the in-service trans-Atlantic submarine cable systems include CANTAT-3, TAT-14, Apollo, Atlantic Crossing 1 (AC-1), Atlantic Crossing 2 (AC-2, also called Yellow), Columbus-III, FLAG Atlantic 1 (FA-1), Hibernia Atlantic, Tata TGN Atlantic.
And construction of new trans-Atlantic submarine cable systems, including Hibernia Atlantic's Project Express and Emerald Atlantis, are underway and expexted to be ready for service in the end of 2012 or early 2013.
Apollo is a 13,000 transatlantic submarine cable system. The Apollo cable system consists of 2 segments North and South, creating two fully diverse transatlantic paths. Apollo North connects the United Kingdom and the USA and Apollo South directly connects France and the USA.
Apollo was ready for service in February 2003, with a design capacity of 6.4 Tbps (3.2 Tbps on both North and South segments).
Apollo offers point to point 10 Gbit/s SDH and LAN PHY wavelengths between the major cities and carrier pops on the US Eastern seaboard and Western Europe.
The Apollo cable network is owned and operated by Apollo Submarine Cable System Limited, a UK based company jointly owned by Cable & Wireless Worldwide and Alcatel-Lucent.
The AC-1 (Atlantic Crossing 1) is a 14,000 km trans-Atlantic submarine cable system linking the USA and three European countries, the U.K., the Netherlands and Germany.
The AC-2 (Atlantic Crossing 2, also known as Yellow) is a 6,400 km trans-Atlantic submarine cable system linking the USA and the UK. The AC-2 was put into service in January 2007, with an initial design capacity of 320 Gbps.
COLUMBUS III is a 9,900 km transatlantic submarine cable linking the US, Portugal, Spain and Italy. COLUMBUS III was ready for service in December 1999, with 2 fiber pairs and a design capacity of 20 Gbps.
The FA-1 (FLAG Atlantic 1) is a 14500 transatlantic submarine cable system linking the US, the UK and France. The FA-1 was ready for service in June 2001.
Hibernia Atlantic is a 12,200 km private transatlantic submarine cable system in the North Atlantic Ocean, connecting Canada, the United States, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Hibernia Atlantic Submarine Cable System was ready for service on April 8, 2001, with a design capacity of 10.16 Tbps.
Hibernia Express is a 4,600 km and 6-pair Trans-Atlantic submarine cable system linking Canada and the United Kingdom. Project Express is built with the state-of-the-art submarine network technology, specifically designed for the financial community stretching from North America to Europe. Hibernia Express offers the lowest latency route from New York to London with 58.55ms round trip delay.
Hibernia Express is privately-owned by Hibernia Atlantic, and form a part of Hibernia Atlantic's Global Financial Network which is specifically designed to meet the demanding performance and reliability requirements of the financial community.
Hibernia Express is ready for service on September 15, 2015.
The TAT-14 is a 15,428 km transatlantic submarine cable system, connecting the United States to the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark. The TAT-14 cable system is comprised of four fiber pairs, each operating at 40 x 10 Gbps DWDM, with a total design capacity of 3.2 Tbps.
With a partial SDH ring protection network structure, the TAT-14 cable system has a total system capacity of 1.87Tbs calculated as:
Southern route: 41 x 10Gbs channels + 640 Gbs SDH capacity
Northern route: 18 x 10Gbs channels + 640 Gbs SDH capacity
Total = 1.87 Tbs
The TAT-14 cable system was ready for service on March 21, 2001.
TGN-Atlantic is a 13,000 km transatlantic submarine cable system linking the United States and the United Kingdom. TGN-Atlantic was ready for service in June 2001.
America Europe Connect (AEConnect), formerly called Emerald Express, is a private trans-Atlantic undersea cable system owned by AquaComms, connecting Shirley, NY and Killala on the West Coast of Ireland, spanning more than 5,400 km with stubbed branching units for future landings, using CeltixConnect, an Irish Sea subsea cable wholly owned by AquaComms, to provide extended connectivity to London and greater Europe.
Featuring the latest technology of 130 Gbps x 100 Gbps per fibre pair, AEConnect provides low latency connectivity across the Atlantic.
AEConnect has been ready for for service since Jan 2016.
AquaComms incorporates people and plans from the former Emerald Express/Emerald Networks project. AquaComms is the parent of Sea Fibre Networks, which built CeltixConnect.
MAREA is a new 6,600 km submarine cable system cross the Atlantic, connecting the United States to southern Europe: from Virginia Beach, Virginia to Bilbao, Spain and then beyond to network hubs in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.
MEREA is designed with eight fiber pairs and an initial estimated design capacity of 160Tbps.
MEREA is jointly built and designed by Facebook and Microsoft, to be operated and managed by Telxius.