Submarine Cable Networks, dedicated to being the encyclopedia on global submarine cable systems.
At Submarine Cable Networks, the Systems are categorized in accordance with their corresponding regional coverage.
The first trans-Pacific submarine cable system, TPC-1 (Trans Pacific Cable 1), was put into servie on on June 19, 1964. It's a submarine coaxial cable linking Japan, Guam, Havaii and mainland U.S.A. via Hawaii, with a small capacity of only 128 telephone lines. After that, many transpacific submarine cable systems were built continuously.
Now, the in-service transpacifc submarine cable systems include AAG, China-US CN, Japan-US CN, Pacific Crossng 1, Southern Cross Cable Network, Telstra Endeavour, TGN Pacific, TPC-5, TPE, Unity, etc.
The Asia-America Gateway (AAG) is the first submarine cable system linking South East Asia directly with the USA, provides connectivity between Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Hong Kong SAR, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii and the US West Coast . The AAG submarine cable system spans 20,000km and uses the latest Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technologies with a minimum design capacity of 1.28 terrabits per second.The AAG submarine cable system has significant advantages over the traditional trans-Pacific routes (via the North Pacific) as it avoids the areas most prone to seismic activity off the Taiwan region, which have previously resulted in damage to undersea cables and network disruptions. The AAG submarine cable system was ready for service on Nov. 10, 2009.
The Bay to Bay Express Cable System (BtoBE) is a 16,000-kilometer trans-pacific optical fiber submarine cable system, will enhance and contribute to the much-needed expansion of communications networks between the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Bay Area, San Francisco Bay Area and Singapore.
The BtoBE consortium composes of China Mobile International, Facebook and Amazon Web Services.
The BtoBE cable system is supplied by NEC and is expected to be completed by the fourth quarter of 2020.
Pacific Light Cable Network (PLCN), the first submarine cable directly connecting Hong Kong and the US, spanning 12800 km, designed with the state-of-the-air C+L band optical technology and open cable structure.
The PLCN cable system consists of 6 fiber pairs, with 240 channels of 100Gbps in a single fiber pair (100G * 240 WL).
The PLCN cable system is co-building by Google, Facebook and PLDC (Pacific Light Data Communication).
The Hong Kong-America Cable System（HKA）is a 6-fiber-pair submarine cable connecting Hong Kong and the U.S. directly, with design capacity more than 72Tbps.
The HKA Consortium consists of Facebook, Microsoft, China Telecom, China Unicom, RTI, Tata Communication and Telstra.
The HKA supply contract is awarded to ASN.
The HKA Consortium and ASN officially announced the launch of HKA cable project at PTC 2018.
The JUPITER Cable System is approximately 14,600 km in length and consists of 5 fiber pairs with a design capacity of more than 60 Tbps. The JUPITER Cable System connects Maruyama, Japan; Shima, Japan; Los Angeles, California, USA; and Daet, Camarines Norte, Philippines. As a new transpacific submarine cable route, the JUPITER Cable System will provide greater diversity of connections and enhanced reliability for customers, as well as optimal connectivity to data centers on the West Coast of the United States.
The JUPITER Cable Consortium include Amazon, Facebook, NTT Communications, PCCW Global, PLDT and SoftBank.
The JUPITER Cable System is scheduled to be ready for service by early 2020.
FASTER is a new trans-pacific cable system, landing at Chikura and Shima in Japan, Tanshui in Taiwan and Bandon in the US, and seamlessly connecting many neighboring cable systems to extend the capacity beyond Japan to other Asian locations, and reaching major hubs on the US West Coast covering the Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland and Seattle areas.
FASTER features the latest high-quality 6-fiber-pair cable and 100Gb/s x 100 wavelengths optical transmission technologies, with an initial design capacity of 60Tb/s.
The FASTER consortium is comprised of China Mobile International, China Telecom Global, Global Transit, Google, KDDI and SingTel.
The total investment for the FASTER cable system is estimated to be approximately USD $300 million.
FASTER cable system has been ready-for-service during as of June 30, 2016.
The New Cross Pacific [NCP] Cable System is a new generation high capacity fibre-optic submarine cable system across the Pacific Ocean directly connecting the US and Asia with landings in China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan and the US.
With a target Ready for Service date in the fourth quarter of the year 2015, the NCP is expected to serve as key infrastructure across the Pacific by providing the foundation for new bandwidth-intensive services which are already transforming people’s lifestyles and business practices. The NCP will be designed to interconnect with other cable systems in the region to maximize the throughput of data and the resilience of the Trans-Pacific transmission infrastructure.
The NCP consortium consists of Chunghwa Telecom, KT Corporation, China Telecom, China Mobile, China Unicom and a US based company.
Unity is a linear Trans-Pacific submarine cable system, ready for service on April 1, 2010. Unity cable is about 9,620 km between Chikura, Japan and Los Angeles, USA. Unity cable system consists of eight fiber pairs, has design capacity up to 7.68 Tbps, with each fiber pair operating at 96x10G DWDM system. Unity offers unique PoP-PoP connectivity between Japan and West Coast of USA. Unity Consortium comprises Bharti Airtel, Global Transit, Google, KDDI Corp., Pacnet, and SingTel, represents a new type of consortium, born out of potentially competing systems, to emerge as a system within a system, offering ownership and management of individual fiber pairs for each consortium member. The initial construction cost of Unity cable system is approximately $300 million.
The SEA-US cable system links the five areas and territories of Manado in Indonesia, Davao in Southern Philippines; Piti in the territory of Guam; as well as Honolulu (on the island of Oahu), Hawaii; and Los Angeles, California in the continental U.S.
The SEA-US cable system spans approximately 15,000 kilometers in length, stretches along a unique route and has been designed and engineered to bypass earthquake prone areas in East Asia, thereby providing a strategic diversity in the range of connectivity to transpacific networks with ensured stable connectivity.
The investment cost for SEA-US cable system is approximately US $250 million. The SEA-US consortium consists of PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia International (Telin), Globe Telecom, RAM Telecom International (RTI), Hawaiian Telcom, Teleguam Holdings (GTA), GTI Corporation (a member of the Globe Telecom group of companies) and Telkom USA.
The SEA-US cable system has been ready for service since August 2017.
PC-1 submarine cable system is owned and operated wholy by Pacific Crossing, an NTT Communications Corporation company. This trans-pacific submarine cable system PC-1 netowrk consists of 4 optical fiber pairs, uses the state-of-the-art technology for optical transmission and submarine cable system, forms protected network rings, connecting the U.S. and Japan. The 21,000km PC-1 submarine cable system offers the highest reliability and the lowest latency across the Pacific. Supported by extensive backhaul into major U.S. and Japanese cities, Pacific Crossing’s infrastructure offers seamless interconnection to virtually every major international network operator for onward global access. With PC-1 network, Pacific Crossing delivers state-of-the-art capacity and managed network services at competitive prices to a growing customer base of carriers and media and information transport-intensive enterprise customers. PC-1 offers protected trans-pacific capacity up to 10Gbps (SDH and wavelength), as well as Ethernet services up to 10G LAN PHY and 10G WAN PHY. In July 2013, the PC-1 network was upgraded with 100G coherent technology, offering 100GE connections from Japan to the USA.
TGN-Pacific (Tata TGN-Pacific, a part of Tyco Global Network, ) was initially builded, designed and operated wholly by Tyco Telecommunications, completed in December 2002. TGN forms a self-healing ring connecting the U.S. to Japan, with north route linking Emi and Hilsboro, and south route linking Toyohashi, and branches to Piti Guam and Los Angeles. On May 3, 2005, Tata Communications(formerly VSNL) announced the acquisition of TGN for $130 million,or Rs 585 crore, in a cash deal.
TPE or Trans-Pacific Express submarine cable system is the second subsea cable system directly linking China and USA, aims to offer high capacity between USA and China as well as other Asian countries and regions. The consortium of TPE includes 6 initial parties from China Unicom and China Netcom (which are consilidated as China Unicom), China Telecom, Verizon Business, Korea Telecom, Chunghwa Telecom, sharing the joint investment of US$ 500 million and equal rights of vote and capacity ownership. NTT and AT&T participated in the consortium in March 2008. TPE was completed in September 30, 2008. The design capacity of TPE cable system is 5.12Tbps, operating at 10Gbps DWDM.
The TPC-5 Cable Network (TPC-5 CN) is the first self-healing trans-Pacific undersea optic fiber ring network. The TPC-5 CN consists two optic fiber pairs, stretching 22560 km, linking six cable landing stations in Japan, Guam, Hawaii and the US mainland. The TPC-5 CN forms a four-fiber-ring automatic protection switching network among the six cable landing stations, each fiber pair capable of 5 Gbps transmission.
The southern route of the TPC-5 CN was put into service in 1995, while its northern route was ready for service on December 31, 1996. The consortium member invested totally US$1.24 billion in the TPC-5 cable network.
China-US CN was early retired in Dec. 2016.
China-US CN (China-US Cable Network or CUCN) is the first submarine cable system with direct cable routes linking the U.S. and China, reaching several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. This trans-pacific subsea optical fiber cable system was planned in 1997 and put into service in early 2000, constructed by a consortium including AT&T, China Telecom, NTT, KT, CHT etc.. China-US CN subsea cable consists of four optical fiber pairs in its northern trans-pacific trunk between Chongming cable landing station and Bandon cable landing station, and southern trans-pacific trunk between Shantou cable landing station and San Lius Obispo cable landing station, as well as the western and eastern trunks linking Shantou- Chongming, and Bandon-San Lius Obispo respectively, with branches to Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Guam. China-US CN was designed with 8x2.488 Gbps (STM-16) SDH over DWDM, a total of 80 Gbps trans-pacific system capacity with SDH self-healing ring protection. China-US CN was the largest trans-pacific subsea cable system as of its commencement of service.
The Southern Cross Cable Network forms a protected ring network among 9 cable landing stations (two each in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii and the US mainland, and one in Fiji) and an access point in San Jose, California. The Southern Cross Cable Network contains 3 fiber pairs between Sydney and Hawaii, and 4 fiber pairs between Hawaii and the US West Coast, with almost 30,500 km in length, including 28,900km of submarine cable and 1,600km of terrestrial cable. The Southern Cross Cable Network is working with 10 Gbps DWDM system with design capacity of 1.2 Tbps, and the system is capable of upgrading with 40 Gbps DWDM technology. The Ready for Service (RFS) for Phase A of the Southern Cross network - comprising all nine stations and all segments except Segment D (from Hawaii to California) - was achieved on 15 November 2000. Completion of the fully protected loop network (RFS Phase B) was achieved on 28 February 2001.
On July 30, 2013, Southern Cross announced the completion of upgrade with Ciena's 100G technology, increasing its lit capacity to 2.6Tbps and system capacity to 12Tbps.
Japan-US CN (Japan-US Cable Network or JUSCN) is the first high capacity trans-pacific subsea cable system using DWDM technology of 10 Gbps per wavelength. Japan-US CN consists of four fiber pairs, each operating at 10 Gbps DWDM, with design capacity of 640 Gbit/s. Initially, Japan-US CN operated at 80 Gbit/s with two lit fiber pairs, expanding to 400 Gbps in mid 2001 by lighting the two remaining fiber pairs each with 16 wavelengths at 10 Gbps per wavelength, further upgrading to 1.28 Tbps in early 2008.
The Telstra Endeavour cable system is 100 per cent Telstra-owned submarine cable system between Sydney and Hawaii, the largest ever commissioned by an Australian company. The Telstra Endeavour provides an improvement in latency over existing submarine cable systems. At 90ms (Sydney-Hawaii) and 138ms (Sydney-Los Angeles via Endeavour and AAG), it is now the shortest path from Australia to the USA.
The Guam-Philippines Cable System (G-P Cable System) consists of two optical fiber pairs between the Batangas Cable Landing Station in the Philippines and the Tanguisson Cable Landing Station in Guam. The Guam-Philippines Cable System was ready for service in March 1999, with a design capacity of 40 Gbps (2x8x2.5 Gbps).
The America Samoa Hawaii Cable (ASH Cable) is the international fiber optic cable between American Samoa, Samoa and Hawaii and connects Samoa to the existing global telecommunications infrastructure networks.
The ASH Cable comprises of two cables installed between Samoa, American Samoa and Hawaii.
In addition, the Samoa-American Samoa Cable (SAS Cable) will provide inter-island communication, as well as enabling users in Samoa to access the ASH cable capacity and connect to the global networks.
The ASH cable project is significantly different from the traditional submarine cable provisioning. The Samoan islands are in a fortunate position to re-utilize the former PACRIM East cable between Hawaii and Auckland that runs along the seabed, about 100 miles east of Pago Pago in the island of America Samoa.
The PACRIM East cable was the original fibre optic cable across the Pacific, laid in the 1990’s. It had large capacity then but by today’s standards its capacity is insufficient to effectively service the needs of New Zealand and Australia. As such, larger capacity cables – Southern Cross and Telstra Australia’s Sydney-Hawaii cables with capacities of Terabits – service their needs.
The project involves recovering the PACRIM East cable from the seabed south east of American Samoa, cutting it and laying it into American Samoa at Pago Pago. During the pick-up process, additional cable will be recovered for re-laying between Pago Pago and Apia, Samoa.
Major cost saving has been achieved in relaying the fibre cable as only a small section of the cable is being recovered and re-laid.
The ASH/SAS Cable consists of three cable landing stations, i.e., the Keawaula Cable Landing Station in Hawaii, the Pago Pago Cable Landing Station in American Samoa, and the Apia Cable Landing Station in Samoa. The ASH/SAS Cable was ready for service on 28 May 2009.
Honotua is a 5000 Km submarine communications cable system that connects several islands of French Polynesia via Tahiti to Hawaii, USA. The international portion of the Honotua cable contains a single fiber pair designed with 32x10 Gbps DWDM system, with initial lit capacity of 2x10 Gbps. The domestic system comprises of 2 fiber pairs designed with 8x10 Gbps each, with an initial lit capacity of 2x2.5 Gbps. It has cable landing points at:
The Honotua Cable stretches 4,650 kilometers (2,890 miles) between Kawaihae, Hawaii and Tahiti, French Polynesia.
The baptismal name bestowed to this Polynesian project, HONOTUA, perfectly reflects the philosophy that lies behind it. HONO means link in the Tahitian language. It is the link between the human beings, peoples, cultures and civilizations. TUA means the open sea, the high seas. But it is also the back, the backbone. Thus HONOTUA is the link that relates Polynesian to the rest of the world, the backbone on which all the information channels interconnect.
The Palau-Guam submarine cable system initiated by Palau Telecom,l provides high capacity fiber optic connectivity between Palau and Guam, enabling connectivity to the US Mainland, the Asia Pacific region, Australia and New Zealand via interconnects with existing and planned submarine cable systems landed in Guam.
Palau Telecoms selects Xtera as the turnkey supplier of the Palau-Guam submarine cable system.
SxS Cable System (SxS) is a 10,500-kilometer undersea fiber optic cable system directly connecting Guam and California, with an initial design capacity of more than 96 Tbps.
SxS cable system is privately invested by RTI Connectitivty (RTI-C). SxS will seamlessly interconnect with HK-G, JGA North, JGA South and SEA-US cable systems in a new purpose-built, RTI-owned facility in Guam.
HK-G is a 3,900 kilometer undersea cable connecting Tseung Kwan O (TKO), Hong Kong and Piti, Guam, with design capacity of more than 48 Tbps.
HK-G cable system lands in the same facility as the Southeast Asia – United States Cable System (SEA-US), Piti cable landing station operated by Teleguam Holdings LLC.
HK-G is a private cable invested by RTI Connectivity (RTI-C) and built by NEC. Furthermore, HK-G cable system utilizes capital from the Fund Corporation for the Overseas Development of Japan’s ICT and Postal Services Inc. (Japan ICT Fund), along with syndicated loans from Japanese institutions including NEC Capital Solutions Limited, etc.
The H2 submairne cable system will be the first direct subsea cable between Sydney and Hong Kong (9,200km), with a branch to Los Angeles (12,500km) providing optimal diversity with existing Hawaiki cable.
The H2 cable system will provide the lowest latency from Australia across the Pacific Ocean, with the Sydney to Hong Kong branch carrying 15 Tbps per fibre pair and the Sydney to Los Angeles branch carrying more than 12.9 Tbps per fibre pair, and will follow a diverse route to the north of New Caledonia.
H2 cable seems a sister-cable of Hawaiki Cable. According to Linkedin, H2 Cable Pte. Ltd. is a Singapore-based company. H2 CEO Georges Krebs still takes the role of Vise President Network and Technology at Hawaiki Cable Limited, while Mr. Rémi Galasso, the Founder and CEO at Hawaiki Cable Limited is the Chairman at H2 Cable.
H2 Cable awarded SubCom the contract to supply, design and install H2 submarine cable system.
Since the first transatlantic submarine cable system, TAT-1, went into service on 25 September 1956, there have been 26 submarine cable systems accross the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the transatlantic submarine cable systems have been retired of communications service.
Now, the in-service trans-Atlantic submarine cable systems include CANTAT-3, TAT-14, Apollo, Atlantic Crossing 1 (AC-1), Atlantic Crossing 2 (AC-2, also called Yellow), Columbus-III, FLAG Atlantic 1 (FA-1), Hibernia Atlantic, Tata TGN Atlantic.
And construction of new trans-Atlantic submarine cable systems, including Hibernia Atlantic's Project Express and Emerald Atlantis, are underway and expexted to be ready for service in the end of 2012 or early 2013.
Apollo is a 13,000 transatlantic submarine cable system. The Apollo cable system consists of 2 segments North and South, creating two fully diverse transatlantic paths. Apollo North connects the United Kingdom and the USA and Apollo South directly connects France and the USA.
Apollo was ready for service in February 2003, with a design capacity of 6.4 Tbps (3.2 Tbps on both North and South segments).
Apollo offers point to point 10 Gbit/s SDH and LAN PHY wavelengths between the major cities and carrier pops on the US Eastern seaboard and Western Europe.
The Apollo cable network is owned and operated by Apollo Submarine Cable System Limited, a UK based company jointly owned by Cable & Wireless Worldwide and Alcatel-Lucent.
The AC-1 (Atlantic Crossing 1) is a 14,000 km trans-Atlantic submarine cable system linking the USA and three European countries, the U.K., the Netherlands and Germany.
The AC-2 (Atlantic Crossing 2, also known as Yellow) is a 6,400 km trans-Atlantic submarine cable system linking the USA and the UK. The AC-2 was put into service in January 2007, with an initial design capacity of 320 Gbps.
COLUMBUS III is a 9,900 km transatlantic submarine cable linking the US, Portugal, Spain and Italy. COLUMBUS III was ready for service in December 1999, with 2 fiber pairs and a design capacity of 20 Gbps.
The FA-1 (FLAG Atlantic 1) is a 14500 transatlantic submarine cable system linking the US, the UK and France. The FA-1 was ready for service in June 2001.
GTT Atlantic (formerly Hibernia Atlantic) is a 12,200 km private transatlantic submarine cable system in the North Atlantic Ocean, connecting Canada, the United States, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Hibernia Atlantic Submarine Cable System was ready for service on April 8, 2001, with a design capacity of 10.16 Tbps.
In January 2017, GTT completed the acquisition of Hibernia Networks for $USD607 million (initial price was $590 million) , which includes Hibernia Express, Hibernia Atlantic and other assets.
Before the acquisition, Hibernia Networks owns and operates a global network serving more than 100 markets and spanning 25 countries. Hibernia Networks serves customers with unparalleled support, flexibility and service in a variety of industry segments including financial markets, web-centric, media and entertainment, and telecom service providers. Providing enterprise-class and wholesale global connectivity solutions, Hibernia Networks offers secure and diverse optical transport, Ethernet and carrier-grade IP transit services. Hibernia Networks also offers dedicated cloud connectivity, low latency services, DTM and HiberniaCDN for seamless anytime, anywhere content delivery. Hibernia Express, Hibernia Networks’ transatlantic cable, provides the lowest latency connections available between major commercial and financial centers in North America, Europe and beyond. The state-of-the-art cable system garnered two Global Carriers Awards in 2015 — Subsea Project of the Year and Best Subsea Innovation, as well as the Global Telecom Business Innovation Award for 2016.
GTT Express (formerly Hibernia Express) is a 4,600 km and 6-pair Trans-Atlantic submarine cable system linking Canada and the United Kingdom. Project Express is built with the state-of-the-art submarine network technology, specifically designed for the financial community stretching from North America to Europe. Hibernia Express offers the lowest latency route from New York to London with 58.55ms round trip delay.
Hibernia Express initially designed with 100 Gbps transmission capacity using TE SubCom’s C100 SLTE platform. It is a 6-fiber-pair submarine cable, with a portion of the fibers optimized for lowest latency and a portion optimized for 100x100 Gbps design capacity. The total cross-sectional design capacity of the Express cable is over 53 Tbps. Hibernia Express was ready for service on September 15, 2015.
Hibernia Express is privately-owned by Hibernia Atlantic, and form a part of Hibernia Atlantic's Global Financial Network which is specifically designed to meet the demanding performance and reliability requirements of the financial community.
In Jan. 2017, GTT completed the acquisition of Hibernia Networks which includes five subsea cables, including Hibernia Express, the lowest latency transatlantic cable system, and eight cable landing stations.
The TAT-14 is a 15,428 km transatlantic submarine cable system, connecting the United States to the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark. The TAT-14 cable system is comprised of four fiber pairs, each operating at 40 x 10 Gbps DWDM, with a total design capacity of 3.2 Tbps.
With a partial SDH ring protection network structure, the TAT-14 cable system has a total system capacity of 1.87Tbs calculated as:
Southern route: 41 x 10Gbs channels + 640 Gbs SDH capacity
Northern route: 18 x 10Gbs channels + 640 Gbs SDH capacity
Total = 1.87 Tbs
The TAT-14 cable system was ready for service on March 21, 2001.
TGN-Atlantic is a 13,000 km transatlantic submarine cable system linking the United States and the United Kingdom. TGN-Atlantic was ready for service in June 2001.
America Europe Connect (AEConnect, AEC-1), formerly called Emerald Express, is a private trans-Atlantic undersea cable system owned by Aqua Comms, connecting Shirley, NY and Killala on the West Coast of Ireland, spanning more than 5,400 km with stubbed branching units for future landings, using CeltixConnect, an Irish Sea subsea cable wholly owned by AquaComms, to provide extended connectivity to London and greater Europe.
Featuring the latest technology of 130 Gbps x 100 Gbps per fibre pair in a total of 4 fiber pairs, AEC-1 provides low latency connectivity across the Atlantic, with 67.83ms between Equinix NY5 – Equinix LD6.
AEConect has been ready for for service since Jan 2016.
Aqua Comms incorporates people and plans from the former Emerald Express/Emerald Networks project. Aqua Comms is the parent of Sea Fibre Networks, which built CeltixConnect.
MAREA is a new 6,600 km submarine cable system cross the Atlantic, connecting the United States to southern Europe: from Virginia Beach, Virginia to Bilbao, Spain and then beyond to network hubs in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.
Marea means “tide” in Spanish. Marea cable system is the first subsea cable connecting Virginia and Spain.
MAREA is designed with eight fiber pairs and design capacity of 160Tbps.
Facebook and Microsoft jointly designed MAREA as the first Open Cable System in the world. Telxius joined in later as the thrid party of MAREA consortium, operates and manages the MAREA cable system. TE SubCom is the turn key suppier for MAREA cable system.
MAREA lands at Telxius' Virginia Beach Cable Landing Station (CLS) at 1900 Corporate Landing Parkway in Virginia Beach, where hosts Telxius' BRUSA cable as well.
MAREA cable system has been in-service since April 2018.
According to FCC documents, Facebook owns two fiber pairs in MAREA, Microsoft owns two fiber pairs in MAREA, Telxius owns the remaining 4 FPs. And AWS has acquired from Telxius a fiber pair in MAREA cable system on IRU basis.
The HAVFRUE subsea cable is the first new undersea cable traversing the North Atlantic to connect mainland Northern Europe to the U.S. in nearly two decades, with a system capacity of 108Tbps and a trunk cable connecting New Jersey, USA to the Jutland Peninsula of Denmark with a branch landing in County Mayo, Ireland. Optional branch extensions to Northern and Southern Norway are also included in the design:
Havfrue means “mermaid” in Danish.
The HAVFRUE consortium including Aqua Comms, Bulk Infrastructure, Facebook and Google. TE SubCom has been selected as supplier for the system on which route survey operations have begun. The projected Ready-for-Service (RFS) date for the HAVFRUE subsea cable is Q4 2019.
Aqua Comms is the appointed system operator and landing party in the U.S., Ireland, and Denmark. Aqua Comms will market and sell capacity services and raw spectrum on its portion of the HAVFRUE cable system under the brand name America Europe Connect-2 (AEC-2) as complementary to its existing transatlantic cable, America Europe Connect-1 (AEC-1).
EllaLink is a submarine cable connecting Brazil and Europe, linking the major hubs of Sao Paulo and Fortaleza with Lisbon and Madrid. The main section of the EllaLink cable traveling from Sines to Fortaleza is approximately 5900 km.
The EllaLink cable system is being built by Alcatel Submarine Networks and will be one of the new generation coherent submarine cables, offering 72 terabits of capacity over 4 fibre pairs.
EllaLink has secured the landing sites in Santos (Brazil), Fortaleza (Brazil) and Sines (Portugal), and is scheduled to be Ready for Service in 2020.
EllaLink is a partnership between Spanish submarine cable operator IslaLink and Brazilian telecoms provider Telebras, being a neutral operator.
The Dunant submarine cable system is a 4-fiber-pair and 6,400km submarine cable connecting Virginia Beach in the United States to the French Atlantic coast. The Dunant cable system is the first ever in-service undersea cable featuring a 12 fiber-pair Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) design, to deliver record-breaking capacity of 250Tbps across the Atlantic.
Named in honor of Henry Dunant, a Swiss businessman, social activist, first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, and founder of the Red Cross, the Dunant cable system honors his memory and commitment to humanitarian ideals.
The Dunant cable system is the second private submairne cable built by Google, following its first private and non-telecom submarine cable Curie, connecting Chile to Los Angeles.
Google selects TE SubCom to design and deploy the Dunant cable system.
WASACE 1 is the next-generation fiber-optic technology between Europe to Latin America, connects Fortaleza, the Canary Islands and Seixal with additional branches in Cape Verde, Madeira and Casablanca.
WASACE 1 submarine cable system will provide 8 fiber pairs for a total capacity of 144 Tbps, each pair with an upgradeable initial capacity of 18 Tbps.
The project is expected to be completed in no more than 30 months, being Q2 2021 the projected Ready for Service (RFS) date for system WASACE 1.
WASACE 1 is invested by Hemisphere Cable Company and supplied by NEC.
Intra-Asia Cable Systems
The Asia Pacific Cable Network (APCN) is a 12000km pan-Asia submarine cable system linking Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. The Asia Pacific Cable Network (APCN) is the world's fourth submarine cable system using optical-amplifier technology, with a design capacity of 5 Gbps.
The APCN has a one fiber pair extension cable to Australia, linking Jakarta (Indonesia) with Port Headland (Australia) through the Lombok Strait. The APCN Australian Extension is also know as the Jasuruas cable system.
The Asia Pacific Cable Network 2 (APCN-2) is a 19,000-km optical fiber submarine cable system linking Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore in a ring configuration, with four fiber pairs connecting 10 submarine cable landing stations in Asia region.
The APCN-2 is the first submarine cable system that has a self-healing function in the Asia Region, and is capable of restoring itself instantly with its ring configuration when a failure occurs in a part of the system.
The APCN-2 has a design capacity of 2.56 Tbps by operating with 64x10 Gbps DWDM technology.
The EAC-C2C Network is a merger of the EAC network and the C2C network, wholly owned by Pacnet, Asia’s largest privately-owned submarine cable network, with a design capacity of 17.92 Tbps to 30.72 Tbps, a total cable length of 36,800 km, and 17 cable landing stations covering Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore.
The East Asia Crossing (EAC) cable system spans 19,800 km, linking Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore. The EAC network was initially constructed by Asia Global Crossing which was acquired by China Netcom in 2002. And then China Netcom sold out Asia Netcom (including the EAC network assets) to an investor group led by Ashmore and Spinnaker in 2006.
The City-to-City (C2C) cable system stretches 17,000, linking Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore. The C2C network was initially constructed by SingTel in 2000-2002.
In 2007, Asia Netcom (now Pacnet) took over the control of C2C and merged the EAC and C2C networks into an integrated EAC-C2C Network.
The Flag North Asian Loop(FNAL) or Reach North Asian Loop (/RNAL) each represents a part of a 9,800 km Intra-Asia submarine cable system, the North Asian Loop submarine cable system linking Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong in a ring configuration.
The entire FNAL/RNAL submarine cable system consists of 6 fiber pairs, initially designed with 64x10 Gbps DWDM technology. Reliance Globalcom (FLAG Telecom) and PCCW Global (Reach) each owns three of the six fiber pairs respectively.
The North Asian Loop cable system was jointly built by FLAG Telecom and Level 3 Communication.
Level 3 Communications built its eastern leg connecting Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan and put it into service in July 2001. In the end of 2001, Reach acquired the North Asian Loop and other assets from Level 3 Communications. In March 2011, PCCW Global announced the completion of Reach's joint-venture alignment to take over most part of Reach's assets including the RNAL.
FLAG Telecom built the western leg connecting Hong Kong, Korea and Japan. And Reliance acquired FLAG Telecom in 2003.
In August 2011, Reliance Globalcom successfully upgraded it FNAL to 40G submarine network, to introduce 10G LAN PHY and OTN services in the FNAL submarine cable network.
PCCW Global announced in January 2012 to upgrade the RNAL with 100G network solutions.
For more information about the FNAL/RNAL cable system, please click here
TGN-Intra Asia Cable System (TGN-IA) is a private Intra-Asia submarine cable system constructed, owned and operated by Tata Communications. The TGN-IA cable spans 6800 km, consists of 4 fibre pairs linking Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, the Philippines, Vietnam and Guam, with a design capacity of 3.84 Tbit/s. The TGN-IA cable route was deliberately designed to avoid areas prone to earthquakes and other hazardous areas, such as south and east coast of Taiwan Island. The TGN-IA cable system offers a low latency direct route between Tokyo and Singapore (63 ms). And the TGN-IA, the TIC and the TGN-Pacific together form an integrate submarine network to connect Asia and the United States.
Matrix Cable System (MCS) is a carrier neutral international fiber optic submarine cable that serves Singapore - Jakarta with high speed, high capacity and non-stop quality links. The MCS cable spans approximately 1055km from Singapore to Jakarta, with maximum design capacity of 2.56Tbps. The MCS Offers PoP-to-PoP Connectivity between Singapore and Indonesia. The MCS was Ready for Provisional Acceptance (RFPA) on August 7, 2008.
TIC (Tata Indicom Cable), also known as TIISCS (Tata Indicom India-Singapore Cable System), is a submarine cable linking India and Singapore. The TIC cable spans 3,175 km, lands in Chennai, India and Changi, Singapore. Construction of the cable TIC began in November 2003 and went on live on September 15, 2004. The TIC cable system comprises of 8 fiber pairs, operates with 64x10 Gbps DWDM technology, with a design capacity of 5.12 Tbps. The TIC cable system is 100% owned and operated by Tata Communications.
The MIC-1 (Moratelindo International Cable-system One) is a linear repeaterless optic fiber submarine cable system connecting Singapore and Batam Island, Indonesia. The MIC cable length is about 70km, lands at Changi Cable Landing Station and Batam Cable Landing Station.
The MIC1 cable system has been designed to have a minimum capacity of 10Gbits (STM-64) with the capability of accommodating Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM). The MIC cable system was ready for service in January 2008.
The MIC cable system is a private cable constructed, owned and operated by Moratel (PT Mora Telematika Indonesia), a wholesale telecom infrastructure providers established in 2000 in Indonesia.
The Korea-Japan Cable Network (KJCN) is a consortium cable with diverse direct connections between Korea and Japan. The KJCN cables consist of 12 fiber pair on both cable routes, with a total cable length of 500km and a design capacity of 2.88 Tbps. There is no repeater and hence no PFE (Power Feeding Equipment) in the KJCN cable system. The C&MA of the KJCN was signed on May 25, 2001, and the KJCN was ready for service on March 23, 2002, offering high quality, reliance broadband services for the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan.
In March 2001, SingTel and Bharti Group formed a 50:50 private submarine cable development company, Network i2i, for the construction of the i2i cable network (i2icn) which was the world's largest cable network in terms of bandwidth capacity (8.4 Tbps) then. The i2i submarine cable consists of 8 fiber pairs connecting Tuas cable landing station in Singapore and Chennai cable landing station in India, spans 3100 km. The entire i2i cable network utilises the latest Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology, with 105 wavelengths of 10 Gbps when fully equipped. The i2i cable network was completed in April 2002. In January 2007, the i2i cable network became 100% owned by Bharti Airtel.
The South-East Asia Japan Cable System (SJC) is a new generation 8900 km (to be extended to 9700 km later) submarine cable system connecting 7 Asian countries and regions including Brunei, Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, the Philippines and Thailand. The SJC cable consists of 6 fiber pairs, with an initial design capacity of 28 Tbps. The SJC cable system utilizes the state-of-the-art advanced 100G SLTE and OADM Branching technologies. The SJC is ready for service on June 27, 2013.
The Asia-Pacific Gateway (APG) is an undersea cable system linking 8 countries and regions in Asia-Pacific region, i.e., Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mainland China, Japan, and Korea.
When it was initiated in May 2009, the APG consortium included PLDT(the Philippines), Chunghwa Telecom (Taiwan), China Telecom and China Unicom (mainland China), KT Corp. (Korea), NTT Communications (Japan), Telekom Malaysia (Malaysia), and VNPT (Vietnam).
As NTT Com, PLDT, StarHub and Telekom Malaysia have signed the C&MA to form another consortium for the construction of the Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE), and another consortium including KDDI, SingTel, China Telecom, China Mobile, Globe Telecom, Google,etc has also signed the C&MA for the construction of the South-East Asia Japan Cable (SJC), the APG consortium has been in a difficulty to team up enough parties to invest in the APG cable system.
On December 20,2011, the APG consortium which includes Chunghwa Telecom, KT and NTT and other members signed in Beijing the APG C&MA and the Supply Contract which is awarded to NEC. But the APG C&MA was not effective until early July 2012 when Facebook and Time dotCom were enrolled to form the final 12-member APG consortium, including China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom, Chunghwa Telecom, Facebook, KT Corp, LG Uplus, NTT Communications, StarHub, Time dotCom (Global Transit) Viettel and VNPT.
The APG cable system has been ready for service as of Oct 28, 2016.
The Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE) is a 7200-km intra-Asia submarine cable system constructed by a consortium including NTT, PLDT, StarHub and Telekom Malaysia. The ASE cable consists of 6 fiber pair, connecting Japan to the Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore,with branch to Hong Kong and potential landing in Mainland China. The ASE cable system is designed with the state-of-the-art 40 Gbps transmission and OADM technologies, with capability to incorporate 100 Gbps technology.
The ASE cable system was launched for service on August 20, 2012.
Telekom Malaysia (TM) holds one-third stake of the ASE consortium and owns two dedicated fiber pair in the ASE cable system, with which TM builds its wholly owned Cahaya Malaysia Cable system.
The Bharat Lanka Cable System is a 320-km submarine cable systems connecting India and Sri Lanka. Initially it will have a capacity of 40 Gbit/s that will later be upgraded to 960 Gbit/s.
The Thailand - Indonesia - Singapore Cable Network (TIS) is a 1100-km regional submarine network linking Songkhla (Thailand), Batam (Indonesia) and Changi (Singapore). The TIS consortium includes CAT Telecom Public Company Ltd. of Thailand (CAT), PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk of Indonesia (Telin) and Singapore Telecommunications Limited of Singapore (SingTel) which jointly invested 36 million to build the TIS cable network.
The TIS was ready for service on December 2, 2003, with an lit capacity of 30 Gbps and upgradeable up to 320Gbit/s.
The Dumai Malaka Cable System (DMCS) is a 147-km repeaterless submarine telecommunications cable system connecting Dumai in Indonesia and Malaka in Malaysia. The DMCS was ready for service in 2005, with a design capacity of 320 Gbps and lit capacity of 20 Gbps. The Dumai Malaka Cable System is supplied by NEC .
The Batam-Dumai-Melaka (BDM) submarine cable is a 400-km intra-Asia regional submarine cable system between Malaysia and Indonesia with two routes, Melaka-Batam and Melaka-Dumai. The BDM consortium includes Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM), PT XL Axiata Tbk and PT Mora Telematika of Indonesia. Huawei Marine Networks offers end-to-end turnkey submarine system solutions for the BDM project.
The BDM cable system has a capacity of 80 Gbps. And the BDM cable project is expected to be completed by the fourth quarter of 2011.
The West Asia Crossing (WAC) is a intra-Asia submarine cable system planed by Pacnet. The WAC connects India through a landing station in Chennai, to both Malaysia and Singapore. The WAC is also designed to offer the flexibility of extending connectivity into Bangladesh and Sri Lanka through separate branching units, as well as the possibility of a second cable landing point in Mumbai to offer additional capacity to cables landing off the west coast of India.
The WAC will have a design capacity of 6 to 8 Tbps, with a ready-for-service (RFS) date targeted around early 2012.
The Taiwan Strait Express-1 (TSE-1, also known as Tanshui-Fuzhou Submarine Cable) is the first submarine cable across the Taiwan Strait, linking Tanshui, Taiwan island and Fuzhou, mainland China. The TSE-1 submarine cable is about 270 Km, consists of 8 optical fiber pairs. The design capacity of the TSE-1 submarine cable system is 6.4 Tbps.
The TSE-1 consortium consists of China Unicom, China Telecom and China Mobile from mainland China, and Chuanghwa Telecom, Taiwan Mobile, Far Eastone,and TIGC from Taiwan.
The TSE-1 cable project was completed on January 18, 2013.
Though the TSE-1 is widely toasted as the first submarine cable linking Taiwan island and mainland China, the first submarine optical fibre cable linking Taiwan and mainland China is the Kinmen-Xiamen submarine cable system which was ready for service on August 21, 2012, linking Kinmen island, Taiwan and Xiamen, mainland China.
The India Cloud Xchange (ICX) subsea cable system is a private cable to be constructed by Global Cloud Xchange (former Reliance GlobalCom), delivering a direct Mumbai-Singapore route to bypass current outage prone terrestrial routes between Mumbai and Chennai. The ICX subsea cable runs approximately 5,060 kilometers between Mumbai and Singapore.
Based on state-of-the-art 100G technology, the ICX cable is a four fiber pair system with initial design capacity per fiber pair at 80 x 100G.
The ICX cable system is expected tol be ready for service in Q2 2016.
The Bay of Bengal Gateway (BBG) is a new cable system that meets the continued bandwidth growth between the Middle East, the Indian sub-continent and South East Asia.
The BBG cable lands in UAE, Oman, India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia, with a diverse terrestrial network from Malaysia to the Singapore points-of-presence at Equinix and Global Switch.
Connection of traffic to BBG is achieved by using either the 10 Gbit/s or 100 Gbit/s interface. BBG is a three fibre pair cable that extends over 8 000 km, based on 100G DWDM coherent technology with an overall design capacity of 10 Tbit/s per fibre pair.
BBG goes live on April 8, 2016.
SEA Cable Exchange-1 (SeaX-1) comprises a 250km high-speed, large capacity, 24-fibre pair undersea fiber optic cable that connects Mersing (Malaysia), Changi (Singapore), and Batam (Indonesia).
The SeaX-1 cable system is fully owned and operated by Super Sea Cable Networks Pte. Ltd..
The SeaX-1 cable system is targeted to complete by the end of 2017.
The Southeast Asia–Japan 2 (SJC2) submarine cable system spans 10500km, connecting 11 cable landing stations in Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Taiwan, mainland China, Korea and Japan.
SJC2 consortium comprises of China Mobile International (CMI), Chuan Wei, Chunghwa Telecom, Facebook, KDDI, Singtel, SK Broadband and VNPT.
The SJC2 cable features eight fibre pairs, at least 18Tbps of capacity per fiber pair, with initial design capacity of 144 Terabits.
TKO Express is the first submarine cable to directly link Chai Wan and Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate (TKOIE) in Hong Kong. With 1,728 fiber cores, spanning just 3.5 km across Tathong Channel, TKO Express provides a direct, low-latency path to link data centers in Chaiwan and the emerging data centre hub at Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate (TKOIE).
TKO Express is 18.2 km shorter than the alternate route from Sino Favor Centre to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKEX). The short, direct path delivers the low-latency financial organisations demand for real-time transactions.
TKO Express is built, owned and operated by Superloop.
TKO Express was ready for service in june 28, 2017.
The Ultra Express Link (UEL) is a 3km high-capacity, low latency subsea cable system connecting the Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate (TKOIE) with the Chai Wan area in Hong Kong.
The UEL cable system provides additional diversity in connectivity for the multiple data centers in TKOIE, and serves to position the TKOIE as Asia’s data center hub.
THe UEL is built, owned and operated by HKT which is majority-owned by PCCW Limited. PCCW Global is the international operating division of HKT.
Chennai-the Andaman & Nicobar Islands (A&N Islands) submarine cable system includes a segment with repeaters from Chennai to Port Blair and seven segments without repeaters between the islands of Havelock, Little Andaman (Hutbay), Car Nicobar, Kamorta, the Great Nicobar Islands, Long Island and Rangat. The total cable length will be approximately 2,300km and carry 100Gb/s optical waves.
The Chennai-A&N Island submarine cable system is invested by Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL),and supplied by NEC.
The Pak-China Optic Fiber Cable (Pak-China OFC) covers a distance of 822 kilometers and runs from Rawalpindi till Khunjerab pass to connect with China.
The Pak-China OFC is operated and maintained by Special Communication Organization, deployed by Huawei Technologies at a total cost of $44 million.
Malaysia-Cambodia-Thailand (MCT) cable system connects Malaysia, Cambodia and Thailand, spans approximately 1,300 kilometers, adopts 100 Gbps technology with a system capacity of 30+ Tbps.
The MCT cable system lands at Sihanoukville in Cambodia, Rayong in Thailand and Cherating (near Kuantan, Penang) in Malaysia respectively.
The MCT cable system is jointly built by Telcotech, a subsidiary of EZECOM in Cambodia, Symphony Communication of Thailand and Telekom Malaysia.
The MCT cable system launched for service in March 2017, with an initial capacity of 1.5Tbps.
In Cambodia, the MCT cable system connects to AAG and other submarine cable system. Telcotech is the only Cambodian member of the AAG which links Southeast Asia to the USA.
As the landing party for MCT cable system in Thailand, Symphony is the first private submarine cable operator in Thailand, owns and operates the Maolee Cable Landing Station in Rayong, Thailand.
Intra-Europe Submarine Cable Systems
The BlueMed cable system is developing by Telecom Italia Sparkle, linking Palermo with Genoa in Italy.
The BlueMed cable will cross the Tyrrhenian Sea connecting Sparkle’s Sicily Hub open data center in Palermo, which serves eighteen international cables, with Genoa’s new open landing station, directly connected to Milan’s rich digital ecosystem. BlueMed will also include multiple branches within the Tyrrhenian Sea and is set to support further extensions southbound of Sicily.
With a capacity up to 240 Tbps and about 1,000 km long, BlueMed will provide advanced connectivity between Middle East, Africa, Asia and the European mainland hubs with up to 50% latency reduction than existing terrestrial cables connecting Sicily with Milan.
Asia-Europe-Africa Submarine Cable Systems
RJK (Russia-Japan-Korea) is a submarine cable system linking Russia, Japan and Korea. The RJK cable consists of two fiber pairs, stretches of 1762 Km, with three cable landing station:
The RJK cable system was designed with 560 Mbps PDH system over each fiber pair. The RJK cable system began operation in January 1995.
The RJCN (or Russia-Japan Cable Network) is a 1800-km submarine cable system with diverse cable routes connecting Japan and Russia, with a design capacity of 640 Gbps. The RJCN was ready for service on September 5 2008. By interconnecting with the Transit Europe Asia (TEA) terrestrial cable, the RJCN and the TEA can offer the shortest latency (approximately 196 ms) between Tokyo and London. And 10 Gbps transparent wavelength is available on the RJCN and TEA route.
The Hokkaido-Sakhalin Cable System (HSCS) is a undersea cable system between Ishikari, Hokkaido in Japan and Nevelsk, Sakhalin in Russia, jointly built by TTK and NTT. The HSCS has a design capacity of 640 Gbps, with a total cable length of 500 km. And the HSCS was ready for service on July 3, 2008. With the seamless combination of the HSCS and the Europe-Russia-Asia (ERA), a trans-Russia terrestrial backbone of TTK, NTT and TTK can offer an alternative and low latency route for the traffic between Asia and Europe.
Europe India Gateway
IMEWE ( India-Middle East-Western Europe) submarine cable is an ultra high capacity fiber optic submarine cable system which links India & Europe via Middle
TGN Eurasia Cable System is a submarine cable linking Mumbai directly to Paris, London and Madrid via Egypt.
The TEA (Transit Europe-Asia) is a terrestrial cable network between Europe and Asia via the territory of Russia, with its Russian segment running over Rostelecom's DWDM network. The Asian segment of the TEA terrestrial cable network may run over:
The TEA terrestrial cable network enables a short latency and stable solution for traffic transiting Europe and Asia.
The TEA terrestrial cable network is a meaningful alternative to the mainly US centric trans-Pacific cable systems in connecting internet networks between Europe and Asia.
The GBI (Gulf Bridge International) is a private submarine cable system connecting the Gulf countries together and provide onward connectivity to the rest of the world.
The GBI Cable System is designed with a self-healing core ring in the Gulf, with double cable landings at the major terminals of Qatar and Fujairah (UAE) and branched landings in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, Oman, and onward connectivity to landing in India and Europe as well.
The GBI Cable System is the first submarine cable landing in Iraq, with a cable landing station in Al Faw.
The GBI Cable System is privately owned by Gulf Bridge International, established in December 2008 with an initial investment of $445 million.
The GBI Cable System was launched in Feb. 2012, connecting the world to the Gulf.
Asia-Africa-Europe 1 (AAE-1) is a 25,000km submarine cable from South East Asia to Europe across Egypt, connecting Hong Kong, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia,Singapore, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Yemen, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Greece, Italy and France.
The AAE-1 consortium signed the construction and maintenance agreement in Hong Kong on January 27, 2014, and launched the AAE-1 cable system for commerical service in June 2017.
The AAE-1 cable system is designed with 100Gbps technology, with a designed trunk capacity of more than 40 Tbps on 5 fiber pairs.
With diversified carrier neutral terminations at Telecom House in Hong Kong, Equinix SG3 and Global Switch in Singapore, and InterXion MRS1 in Marseille, France, AAE-1 is the unique robust, highcapacity low-latency bandwidth solution along the Eurasia corridor.
The SEA-ME-WE 5 (SMW5) is a 20,000km submarine cable system connecting 17 countries through Points-of-Presence (POPs) from Singapore to the Middle East to France and Italy in Western Europe, with an ultimate system capacity of 24 Tbps.
The SEA-ME-WE 5 consortium consists of 15 leading telecom operators, including BSCCL, China Mobile International, China Telecom Global, China Unicom, Du, Orange, Myanmar Post and Telecom, Telin, Saudi Telecom, SingTel, Sri Lanka Telecom, Telekom Malaysia, Telecom Italia Sparkle, TOT, and Telecom Yemen. The SMW5 consortium signed the construction and maintenace agreement on March 7, 2014.
Alcatel-Lucent and NEC were awarded the SMW5 supply contracts, Alcatel-Lucent will supply the segments from Sri Lanka to France, while NEC will supply the Singapore to Sri Lanka segment.
The Gulf to Africa (G2A) submarine cable system connects Salalah (Oman) to Bosaso (Puntland, Somalia) and Berbera (Somaliland, Somalia). The G2A Consortium is formed by Omantel (Oman), Telesom (Somaliland, Somalia), Golis (Puntland, Somalia) and Ethio Telecom (Ethiopia).
Arctic Fibre is a three-phase submarine cable project, planned to connect Asia, Canada and Europe through the Arctic Ocean.
Phase 1 – Alaska is a 1200 mile submarine fiber optic cable main trunk line between Nome and Prudhoe Bay.
Phase 2 – Asia, is planned to extend the backbone cable from the Nome branching unit west to Asia, with options for additional branches into Alaska. Phase 2 will create an option for a diverse path out of the United States to Asia.
Phase 3 – Canada-United Kingdom, is intended to extend the subsea system east of the Prudhoe Bay, Alaska branching unit along the Lower Northwest Passage to Canada and on to the United Kingdom. Phase 3 will connect to Northern Canadian communities and will provide a secure low latency route from Europe to Asia, and a diverse route option out of North America to Europe.
The Phase 1 – Alaska has been launched for service since early December 2017.
Quintillion Subsea Holdings LLC (“Quintillion”) acquired the assets of Arctic Fibre in May 2016.
Pakistan & East Africa Connecting Europe (PEACE) is 12,000 km long, privately owned cable system that provides an open, flexible and carrier-neutral services for its customers.
The PEACE cable system is designed with the latest 200G transmission technology and WSS ROAMD BU technology, which provides the capability to transmit over 16Tbps per fiber pair servicing growing regional capacity needs.
This PEACE cable system will substantially reduce network latency by adopting shortest direct route connectivity, providing cost-effective capacity in an economically growing region and enhancing route diversity between Asia, Africa and Europe.
PEACE is privately owned and invested by PEACE CABLE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK CO., LIMITED, a subsidiary of China-based HENGTONG Group and supplied by Huawei Marine. PEACE is targeted for completion in Q1, 2020.
The IOX Cable System spans about 8,850 km，connects Mauritius and Rodrigues to the East Coast of South Africa on one side and the East Coast of India on the other. The IOX Cable System consists of 4 fiber pairs in its trunk, with design capacity of 13.5 Tbps per fiber pair and 54 Tbps for the whole system. The IOX Cable system will reinforce Mauritius as a hub in sub-Saharan Africa.
The IOX Cable System will be the first open cable system in the region and is targeted to be completed in 2019.
The Mauritius and Rodrigues Submarine Cable System (MARS) is a 700km undersea cable connecting the Indian Ocean Islands of Rodrigues and Mauritiuswith, with a bandwidth design capacity of 16Tbit/s. The MARS cable system is built by PCCW Global, Mauritius Telecom and Huawei Marine.
The MARS cable system is expected to ready for service in 2019.
The Africa-1 submarine cable system spans 20,000km, linking South Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan and Europe.
The Africa-1 cable will land at Sidi-Krir and Zaafarana in Egypt, Port Sudan in Sudan, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, Djibouti City in Djibouti, Mogadishu in Somalia, Mombasa in Kenya, Mayotte, Mahajanga in Madagascar, Fujairah in the UAE, and Karachi in Pakistan, with carrier-neutral points of presence (PoPs) in Marseille (France), Mombasa (Kenya) and Durban (South Africa).
The Africa-1 consortium comprises 13 members: 4 global telco carriers - Airtel, PCCW Global, BICS and China Telecom, 5 African telco carriers - MTN Group (South Africa), Mauritius Telecom (Mauritius), Telecom Egypt (Egypt), Sudatel (Sudan), Zain Sudan and Telma (Telecom Malagasy from Madagascar), 3 telco carriers from Middle East - Etisalat (UAE), STC (Saudi) and PTCL (Pakistan) and 1 non-telecom member Al Asab Trading Company.
The Africa-1 consortium signed the Construction and Maintenance Agreement (C&MA) on 11 December 2018 in Dubai.
The Djibouti Africa Regional Express 1(DARE1) submarine cable system connects Djibouti (Djibouti), Bosaso (Somalia), Mogadishu (Somalia) and Mombasa (Kenya). With a finalized route length of 4,747km, DARE1 cable system delivers up to 36 Tbps of capacity to East Africa.
The DARE1 cable system is designed with a three-fibre-pair trunk, with each fibre pair delivering capacity of 40 channels at 300 Gbps. The Bosaso branch of the DARE1 cable is of 108 km and two fiber pairs.
The DARE1 consortium is currently composed of Djibouti Telecom and Somtel.
The DARE1 cable system is supplied by SubCom.
The PPC-1 (PIPE Pacific Cable 1) submarine cable system consists of two segments of digital fiber-optic cable: (1) the Australia-Guam Trunk, connecting Sydney, Australia with Piti, Guam; and (2) the PNG Spur, connecting Madang, Papua New Guinea with a branching unit located on the Australia-Guam Trunk. The Australia-Guam Trunk of the PPC-1 cable system consists of two optical fiber pairs, with a design capacity of 96 wavelengths (10 Gbps) on each fiber pair, for a total design capacity of 1.92 Tbps. The initial configuration of the Australia-Guam Trunk provides a total of 140 Gbps of capacity. The initial configuration of the PNG Spur provides a total of 20 Gbps of capacity, 10 Gbps on the Papua New Guinea-Guam route and 10 Gbps on the Papua New Guinea-Australia route.
The PPC-1 cable project was lunched on January 14, 2008. On September 22, 2009, Internode released a press release claiming successful transmission of IP packets across the PPC-1 cable, making it the first commercial entity to make use of the PPC-1 cable. The PPC-1 cable project was formally completed on October 8, 2009.
The Pacific Fibre cable is a new 12,750km (7,920 miles) trans-pacific subsea fiber optic cable linking Australia, New Zealand and the US, with cable landing stations in Sydney, Auckland and Los Angeles. The Pacific Fibre cable system consists of two fiber pairs, with 128 wavelengths per fibre pair. By using the latest 40 Gbps per wavelength technology, the Pacific Fibre is expected to have a capacity of up to 5.12 Tbps, and will be further upgradeable to beyond 12 Tbps with future 100 Gbps per wavelength technology.
The Pacific Fibre is the second international submarine cable system landing in New Zealand, with significant improvement to the international network resilience in New Zealand.
The Pacific Fibre is expected to be ready for service in 2014.
Unfortunately, the Pacific Fibre has ceased operation as at 1 August 2012, citing an inability to raise enough investment to fund the cable build.
Optikor Network is a new trans-Tasman submarine cable system connecting Sydney, Australia with South Island and North Island, New Zealandlink, with a cable length of more than 3000 km. The trans-Tasman Optikor Network is designed to provide initially a capacity of 120 Gbps with 1 fiber pair, and eventually 6.4 Tbps with 2 fibre pairs.
Axin Limited initiated the trans-Tasman Optikor Network in September 2011. Axin Limited, founded in 2010, is fully invested by the Sino Telecommunication, and plays major role in the national broad band project of New Zealand.
The trans-Tasman Optikor Network is expected to be ready for service by the end of 2013.
This trans-Tasman Optikor Network will address the large capacity requirements in the Tasman region and bring competition to the capacity markets in Australia and New Zealand where are now dominated by the Southern Cross Cable Network and the undergoing Pacific Fibre.
Tasman Global Access (TGA) is submarine cable system designed to significantly improve New Zealand’s international telecoms connectivity and to strengthen the country’s links with Asian markets. The TGA cable spans 2,300km, linking Raglan in New Zealand and Narrabeen in Australia. The TGA cable system will have a design capacity of at least 20Tbps, deploying 100G technology.
The TGA consortium includes Spark New Zealand (formerly Telecom New Zealand), Vodafone and Telstra which will jointly invest less than $60 million and expect to be ready for service in early 2015.
Hawaiki Cable spans 15,000 km, linking Australia, New Zealand, American Samoa, Pacific Island, Hawaii and Oregon, on the U.S. West Coast, with a design capacity of 43.8 Tbps of capacity.
The Hawaiki Cable represents a solution to improve:
- Trans-Pacific connectivity between Australia, New Zealand and the US
- Trans-Tasman connectivity between Australia and New Zealand
- Hawaii connectivity to Continental US
- Pacific Islands connectivity to New Zealand, Australia and the US
The main trunk of Hawaiki cable system is 100% owned and constructed by Hawaiki Submarine Cable LP (HSC LP), headquartered in Auckland, New Zealand. The total investment in Hawaiki Cable is approximately US$300 million (NZD 445m).
HSC LP and its affiliates owns and/or controls the cable landing stations ("CLS") in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii and Oregon, as follows:
American Samoa Telecommunications Authority ("ASTCA"), the government-owned incumbent local exchange carrier in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa, owns, constructs and operates the branch to American Samoa and corresponding landing station.
Amazon AWS purchased capacity in the Hawaiki cable system, making it AWS' first investment in an international submarine cable system.
The Hawaiki submarine cable system has been ready for service as of Jul. 20, 2018.
Asia-Australia Submarine Cable Systems
The Australia-Singapore Cable (ASC) is a 4,600-km submarine cable system linking Perth, Australia and Singapore, through the Sunda Strait in Indonesia, providing potential for the first 100Gbit/s high-speed connection from Western Australia to South East Asia.
The Australia Singapore Cable (ASC) project was launched by Nextgen Networks and Vocus jointly, based on a 50/50 joint venture. In April 2017, Vocus Communications completed the acquisition of Nextgen Networks to own 100% of the ASC.
The ASC cable system is designed to carry 40Tbps with four fibre pairs.
The AJC Network (Australia Japan Cable Network) is a submarine cable network directly connecting Australia and Japan via Guam, providing 10 Gbit/s wavelengths with a design capacity of up to 64 waves per fibre pair over two fiber pairs. The AJC network runs through the six AJC cable landing stations, with two separate cable landing stations in each of Japan, Australia and Guam, with a cable length of 12,700 Km. The AJC Network was ready for service on 30 December 2001.
The JASURAUS submarine cable system (also know as APCN Australian Extension) connects Australia (Port Hedland) with Indonesia (Jakarta), with total cable length of 2800 km and a design capacity of 5 Gbps. and brings Australia to the Asia Pacific Cable Network (APCN).
For more information about the JASURAUS, please refer to APCN cable system overview.
The ASSC-1 submarine cable system is a new cable connecting Australia, Indonesia and Singapore, comprises four fibre pairs and spans a distance of 4,600 km.
The ASSC-1 consists of three express fiber pairs directly linking Perth and Singpare and one omnibus fibre pair between Perth, Jakarta and Singapore.
The ASSC-1 cable system will have an initial design capacity of 6.4 Tbps, running at 40 Gbps technology, with the capability to be upgraded to 100 Gbps in the future.
The ASSC-1 cable system is scheduled to be ready for service by the end of 2013.
The INDIGO cable system is formerly named as APX-West.
In April 2017, AARNet, Google, Indosat Ooredoo, Singtel, SubPartners, and Telstra announced they have entered into an agreement with Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN) to build the INDIGO cable system that will connect Singapore, Indonesia and Australia.
The INDIGO cable system consists of two distinct cable projects, Indigo West connecting Singapore to Perth via Jakarta, and Indigo Central connecting Perth to Sydney.
The INDIGO cable system is designed with two fiber pairs, with a design capacity of around 36 Tbps and option to expand in the future.
The INDIGO cable system is scheduled to be completed by Q1 2019.
Papua New Guinea is an island nation located in the South Pacific. The PNG National Submarine Cable Network is built and operated by PNG DataCo Limited, connecting 14 main cities in PNG, and with international connectivity by a link to Jayapura in Indonesia, and interconnection with PPC-1 at Madand cable landing station, onward to Guam and Sydney, Australia.
The design capacity of the system is 8Tbps. And it is expected to be completed in 2018.
Trident Cable System is a 28 Tbps subsea cable, using 100Gbps coherent DWDM technology upgradeable to 400Gbps technology in the future, which will connect Australia, Singapore and Jakarta.
The Trident cable will have interconnection points in Equinix IBX data centres in Sydney, Melbourne, Singapore and Jakarta, as well as a landing point in Perth, providing greater connectivity for businesses, content providers and communications network providers.
The Japan-Guam-Australia (JGA) Cable System is a 9,500-kilometer undersea fiber optic cable system connecting Japan, Guam and Australia, with a design capacity of more than 36 terabits per second (Tbps) and is expected to be completed in the fourth quarter of 2019.
The JGA consortium comprises RTI Connectivity Pte. Ltd. (RTI-C), AARNet Pty Ltd (AARNet) and Google.
The JGA cable system comprises JGA South and JGA North, interconnecting at in Guam at a new cable landing station in Piti, operated by Teleguam Holdings (GTA).
JGA South (JGA-S) is a consortium cable. JGA South consortium includes AARNet, Google and RTI-C. JGA South lands in Sydney, Sunshine Coast of Queensland and Piti in Guam, with an initial design capacity of 36 Tbps. JGA South is the first new cable ever to land on the east coast of Australia, outside of Sydney.
JGA North (JGA-N), the 2600km segment between the Minami-Boso in Japan and Piti in Guam, is a private cable with RTI-C as the sole operator and investor. The JGA North cable consists of two fiber pairs, with a design capacity of a minimum of 12 Tbps per fiber pair.
The Minamiboso cable landing station for JGA North is a new cable landing station owned and controled by NTT, which is built as terminal station for NTT's Jupiter cable system. Minamiboso cable landing station will provide additional geographical diversity for U.S.-Japan traffic currently landing at KDDI's Chikura cable landing station and SoftBank's Maruyama cable landing station.
JGA South is supplied by Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN), while JGA North is supplied by NEC Corporation.
The Eurasia Terrestrial Cable Network is an important part of the global telecom infrastructure, consists of various terrestrial cable systems such as TEA, TEA-2, TEA-3, ERA, ERMC, EKA, CR2, etc, with the efforts and cooperation from carriers in China, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and other Asian and European countries, the Eurasia Terrestrial Cable Network has been stable enough to offer bandwidth up to 10G or 10GE with SLA guaranteed.
The TEA-2 terrestrial cable system is an upgraded cable system of the TEA, connecting major cities in Europe and Hong Kong, Beijing, etc, via RosTelecom's state-of-the-air terrestrial cable system across Siberia and backbones of either China Unicom or China Telecom, offering customer bandwidth up to STM-64 or 10GE.
The TEA-2 cable system forms an affordable and stable Eurasia broadband internet infrastructure.
The Euro-Russia-Asia (ERA) terrestrial cable system offers the most competitive Eurasia terrestrial cable solution, in views of stability, latency and pricing.
TRANSKZ is a terrestrial route linking Europe and Asia, and offers low latency and protected services between all major European markets to China and Hong Kong.
TRANSKZ was launched in 2016 in partnership between RETN and Transtelecom JSC.
Submarine cable systems connecting North America and South America
Seabras-1 submarine cable is a new, fully operational, 10,500 km fiber optic cable provides the first direct route between São Paulo and New York (with landing station at 1400 Wall Church Rd, Wall Township, New Jersey). Branching units added to Seabras-1 include Virginia Beach, Miami, St. Croix, Fortaleza, Cape Town, Rio de Janeiro and Brazil South. Seabras-1 cable system consists of 6 fiber pairs, with a design capacity of 72 Tbps. All backhaul and metro fiber from its Praia Grande landing station into metro São Paulo is underground for improved quality of service.
Seabras-1 delivers the lowest latency route between Nasdaq, 1400 Federal in Carteret, New Jersey and Brazil Stock Exchange, B3 in São Paulo, with an actual measured latency of 105.05ms RTD between the exchange data centers.
Seabras-1 is a private cable constructed and operated by Seaborn Networks which will provide cross-connect access to all major carriers present in each of our locations.
Seabras-1 has been ready for operation as of September 8th, 2017.
The MONET is a submarine cable system hooking up Boca Raton in Florida with Brazil’s Fortaleza and Santos, with six fiber pairs and a total design capacity of 64 Tbps.
The MONET consortium comprises of Google, Brazil’s Algar Telecom, Uruguay’s Antel, and Angola’s Angola Cables.
The América Móvil Submarine Cable System (AMX-1) spans 17500km, connecting 7 countires, including the United States, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, with 11 cable landing stations in Jacksonville and Miami, in the United States; Puerto Barrios in Guatemala; Barranquilla and Cartagena in Colombia; Fortaleza, Salvador de Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil; Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic; San Juan in Pureto Rico and Cancun in Mexico.
The AMX-1 cable system is wholly owned by América Móvil, S.A.B. de C.V. (“América Móvil”) and its eight subsidiaries in the landing countries. The initial investment of the AMX-1 cable system costs about US$500million.
The AMX-1 cable system was launched for service in Dec 2013.
BRUSA, a new submarine cable nearly 11,000 km in length linking Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza (Brazil) with San Juan (Puerto Rico) and Virginia Beach (USA), consists of 8 fiber pairs, with initial design capacity of 135 x 100 Gbps per fiber pair and ROADM technology.
BRUSA is a private cable built and operated by Telefónica. It is expected to begin operations in early 2018.
The Fiber Optic Austral (FOA) is the southernmost submarine cable in the world, connecting Las Lagos, Aysén and Magallanes in southern Chile.
The FOA cable system has a design capacity of 16 Tb/s and a length of 2,800 kilometers. It is expected to be completed by the end of 2019.
The FOA cable system is owned and operated by CTR (Comunicación y Telefonía Rural S.A.), and supplied by Huawei Marine.
ARBR is a 4-fiber pair, 48Tbps, direct POP-to-POP subsea cable system Buenos Aires (Argentina), and São Paulo (Brazil). With an interconnection with Seabras-1, ARBR enables the newest and most direct route between Argentina and the U.S.
With Seaborn and The Werthein Group as owners, ARBR will be Argentina’s first and only transoceanic cable for Argentina that is not controlled by a large incumbent telecom company.
Construction is scheduled to commence in 2018, with RFS H1 2019.
The Curie submarine cable system is a four-fibre-pair and 10,000km cable connecting Los Angeles, California, and Valparaiso, Chile, with a branching unit for future connectivity to Panama.
Named after physicist and chemist Marie Curie, the Curie cable system will make Google the first major non-telecom company to build a private intercontinental cable. Google claims it will be the first new cable to land in Chile in almost 20 years, and will become the largest single data pipe connecting the country.
The Curie cable system is supplied by TE SubCom. The Curie cable system is set to go live in 2019.
GlobeNet submarine cable system spans 23,500 km serving North and South America with ring protection.
GlobeNet cable system lands at the following Cable Landing Stations (CLSs):
GlobeNet cable system offers direct low latency services in the following routes:
GlobeNet cable system was luanched for service in 2001.
GlobeNet is a portfolio company of BTG Pactual Infrastructure Fund II.
Malbec is a new 2,500 km submarine cable that links the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo to Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina and will have a branching unit to reach Porto Alegre, Brazil.
By connecting Argentina to GlobeNet’s network in Brazil, the new infrastructure will provide seamless connectivity between the Southern Cone of South America and the United States. When completed, it will be the first new submarine cable route to reach the Argentinian coast since 2001.
The Malbec cable system is co-owned by GlobeNet and Facebook, and it will be operated by GlobeNet. "Malbec" is named after the renowned Argentinian wine.
The Malbec cable system will be ready-for-service date for the first half of 2020
Brazil-Eruope Submarine Cable Systems
Submarine cable systems connecting Brazil and Africa
The South Atlantic Cable System (SACS) is a submarine cable system connecting Sangano in Angola and Fortaleza in Brazil, the world's first submarine cable system across the South Atlantic.
The SACS cable consists of 4 fiber pairs, with an initial design capacity of 40Tb/s (100Gb/s x 100 wavelengths x 4 fiber-pairs).
The SACS is owned by Angola Cables, which is joint venture of five Angolan operators Angola Telecom (51%), Unitel (31%), MSTelcom (9%), Movicel (6%) and Startel (3%).
It is said, Telebras is a partner of Angola Cables to offer cable landing for the SACS.
The South Atlantic Inter Link (SAIL) is a 6,000-km submarine cable system connecting Kribi, Cameroon with Fortaleza, Brazil，with a branch to Equatorial Guinea.
The SAIL cable system consists of four fiber pairs, each capable of transmitting 100 wavelengths with a bandwidth of 100 Gbit/s and delivering a design capacity of 32 Tbps.
The SAIL cable system is invested by CAMTEL of Cameroon, and China Unicom as the landing party in Brazil., Huawei Marine is the turn-key solutions provider for the SAIL cable system.
In Brazil, the SAIL cable system terminates at Telxius Fortaleza Cable Landing Station, seamlessly connecting with BRUSA and Sam-1 onwards to the US.
Marine installation of the SAIL cable system was successfully completed on September 4th, 2018.
The South Atlantic Express (SAEx1) is a 72 Tbit/s submarine cable system connecting South Africa directly to the US, linking Cape Town in South Africa, Fortaleza in Brazil and Virginia Beach, Virginia in the US, with branches to Namibia and Saint Helena.
The SAEx1 cable system is building by SAEx International Ltd, based in Mauritius with a subsidiary company (SAEx SA (Pty) Ltd) in South Africa, is building the South Atlantic Express (SAEx) cable. The company is also planning the South Asia Express (SAEx2) , to form a unique 25000km submarine cable connecting Asia, Africa, South America and North America.
SABR is the first direct subsea cable system that connects South Africa to Brazil, and eventually to the US. SABR is set for commercial launch in 2020.
Submarine cable systems connecting Europe and Africa
The West Africa Cable System (WACS) is a 14000km submarine cable system connecting 15 countries, starting from South Africa and ending in London. The initial capacity of the WACS cable system is about 5.12 Tbit/s, with the amplification capacity up to 30Tbits/s.
MainOne Submarine Cable System
Cables connecting Canada and the US.
Submarine and terrestrial cable systems connecting countries or regions in North America.
The Maple Leaf Fibre cable system will have a terrestrial segment between Montréal, Ottawa, and Kingston, and a submarine segment through Lake Ontario between Kingston and downtown Toronto.
The Maple Leaf Fibre cable system is developed by Maple Leaf Fibre Ltd., a joint venture of two leading independent Canadian providers of fibre optic network capacity, Crosslake Fibre ULC based in Toronto, Ontario and Metro Optic based in Montréal, Quebec.
Crosslake Fibre's Lake Ontario submarine fibre-optic cable is the first of its kind, a high fibre count cable connecting US to Canada via Lake Ontario. This is an important cable system for financial firms, enterprises and carriers, as it offers secure, low latency routes and high capacity options into the US.
The Topolobambo – La Paz submarine cable system is a 250km unrepeatered submarine cable system with 24 fiber pairs. The system, which will have a capacity of 192Tb/s, is planned for delivery in Q2 2019.
The Topolobambo – La Paz submarine cable system is owned and operated by Megacable Holdings, S.A.B. de C.V., one of the largest Cable Telecommunications operator in Mexico. The cable system is supplied by Huawei Marine.