There are now 8 submarine cable landing stations in China.
China Telecom owns three cable landing stations, including
China Unicom owns four cable landing stations, including:
China Mobile owns one cable landing stations:
For provision of cable-based external fixed service, an interested party is required to obtain a UCL (External) from OFTA. Apart from leasing capacity on existing submarine cables for provision of service, a holder of UCL (External) may also choose to land their own cables in Hong Kong, either by using an existing CLS or building a new CLS.
There are now 11 in-service submarine cable systems connecting Hong Kong, namely:
There are several new submarine cable systems under construction or planning, such as Pacific Light Cable Network (PLCN), Hong Kong - America(HKA), Hong Kong - Guam (HKG), Southeast Asia–Japan 2 (SJC2), BtoBE, etc.
And there are eight submarine cable landing stations (CLS) in Hong Kong, including three at Tseung Kwan O, two at Tong Fuk, and each at Deep Water Bay, Chung Hom Kok and Cape D'Aguilar respectively.
Due to the geography of Hong Kong, the submarine cables are landed in Hong Kong from international waters via the southeast direction. This has restricted the choice of landing sites for submarine cables even though Hong Kong has a long coastline. Currently, there are three major areas for landing of submarine cables with cable landing stations at: (1) Tong Fuk in the southern part of Lantau Island; (2) Deep Water Bay, Cape D’Aguilar and Chung Hom Kok in the southern part of the Hong Kong Island; and (3) Tseung Kwan O in the eastern part of the New Territories.
As most of the existing submarine cables are landed at Tong Fuk and Deep Water Bay, there are advantages in having additional cables landed in new pieces of land elsewhere. It will offer the necessary physical diversity to land submarine cables at TKO (Tseung Kwan O) where accomodates many leading data centers in Hong Kong, such as HKEx, Global Switch, MEGA Plus, Hong Kong Financial Data Center, etc.
Japan is the Hub for trans-Pacific and intra-Asia submarine networks, most of the trans-pacific submarine cable systems landing in Japan. There are more submarine cable landing stations in Japan than any other Asian countries, including Ajigaura, Chikura, Emi, Kita Ibaraki, Maruyama, Okinawa, Shin-Maruyama, Toyohashi and Wada cable landing stations.
There are now four active cable landing stations in Korea, namely the Busan Cable Landing Station, the Keoje Cable Landing Station, the C2C Busan Cable Landing Station and the Taean Cable Landing Station, connecting APCN, APCN-2, APG, C2C, China-US CN, EAC, FNAL/RNAL, FLAG FEA, NCP, RJCN, R-J-K and TPE submarine cable systems.
According to the Guidelines on Deployment of Submarine Cables into Singpaore issued by the Info-communications Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) in August 2010, all new submarine cable systems can only be deployed to three designated landing sites in Singapore, namely the Changi North landing site, the Tanah Merah landing site, and the Tuas landing site, and each landing site is available on a first-come-first-served basis.
There are now 9 submarine cables landing in Taiwan, including APCN, APCN-2, C2C, China-US CN, EAC, FLAG FEA, FNAL/FNAL, SMW3 and TPE, with cable landing stations at Tanshui, Pali, Toucheng and Fangshan.
The Philippines takes an important position in the business process outsourcing (BPO) industry worldwide. Submarine networks serve as critical components to the BPO industry, providing reliable and diverse links between the Philippines and the rest of the world.
There are now seven submarine cable systems landing in the Philippines, including APCN, APCN-2, C2C, EAC, TGN-IA, AAG and Guam-Philippines, distributed in five cable landing stations in Batangas, Ballesteros, Capepisa, La Union and Nasugbu.
There are now 9 international submarine cables landing in Malaysia, including APCN, APCN-2, AAG, SMW3, SMW4, FEA, and several cables between Malaysia and Indonesia such as Batam-Dumai-Melaka (BDM) Cable System, Dumai Malaka Cable System (DMCS) and Batam-Rengit Cable System (BRCS).
Currently, there are 15 subsea cables (17 if Seacom and MENA are considered seperate cables) landing in 15 cable landing stations in 5 cities across India, in Mumbai, Chennai, Cochin, Tuticorin and Trivandrum.
BSNL plans to construct new cable landing stations in Digha, Cochin, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. IOX will construct a new cable landing station at Puducherry. Reliance Jio is planning for new cables and landing station.
To have a full picture about submarine cables landing in India, please read following articles by an Indian expert Mr. Suvesh Chattopadhyaya:
According to Mr. Suvesh Chattopadhyaya's contribution, here is a complete list of submarine cables landing in India:
Currently, international submarine cables land in Thailand via 3 submarine cable landing stations, namely the Sri Racha Cable Landing Station, the Petchaburi Cable Landing Station, and the Songkhla Cable Landing Station.
The undergoing intra-Asia submarine cable system, South-east Asia Japan Cable (SJC) is going to land at the Songkhla Cable Landing Station.
The SEA-ME-WE 3 (SMW3) is currently the only international submarine cable system reaching Myanmar, landing at the Pyapon Cable Landing Station in Myanmar.
Cable Landing Stations in Brunei
There are two cable landing stations in Sri Lanka, the Mount Lavinia Cable Landing Stations for SMW3 and BLCS cable systems, and the Colombo Cable Landing Station for FALCON, SEA-ME-WE-4,SLT-Dhiraagu and SAFE cable systems.
Both SMW4 and SMW5 are built and owned by Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company (BSCCL) .
Mango, the only private sector international internet gateway (IIG) operator of Bangladesh, is connected to the global internet using the SEA-ME-WE 4 submarine cable system. Mango won its license through an open auction from Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) on February 25, 2008.
The Bangladesh Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (BTRC) issued draft licensing guidelines for two new submarine cable licences in early 2010. Each licensee should build a separate landing station within the general area of Khula-Patuakhali-Barisal-Chittagong, and should provide access, co-location and landing facilities to other submarine cable licensees, as and when required by the BTRC.
Besides the international submarine communication cable connecting Bangladesh, there are three terrestrial cables on India-Bangladesh boarders in Jessore, Sylhet-Comilla and Kurigram which may also bring Bangladesh into the global communication network.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s position at the heart of the Middle East and is a hub in the submarine networks in Middle East region.
There are now 13 in-service submarine cable systems connecting Saudi Arabia, namely:
There are no new submarine cable systems under construction or planning. However , there are expectations of new submarine cables announcements in the year 2019 due high bandwidth demand & route diversity.
Jeddah Landing Station, Al Khobar Landing Station and Yanbu Landing Station are connected to each other through completed redundant terrestrial network.
As most of the existing submarine cables are landed at Jeddah due to easy onward connectivity from Asia to Egypt & Europe. There are advantages in having additional cables landed in new pieces of land elsewhere. As an example, SE-ME-WE-5 cable landed in Yanbu. Yanbu was selected as a SE-ME-WE-5 landing site for ease of connections to capital city Riyadh and Jeddah, as well as the fact that the seabed off its shore is very favorable for submerging the marine cable and could offer the necessary physical diversity.
Contributed by Abdul Ravoof