Cable Landing Station is one important component of a submarine cable system which comprises of Wet Plant and Dry Plant.
The Dry Plant of a submarine cable system is a segment between the beach manhole and the cable landing station, comprises of land cable, power feeding equipment (PFE) and submarine line terminal equipment(SLTE), etc. The Wet Plant of a submarine cable system lies between the beach manholes, consists of submarine cable, repeater/gain equalizer, branching unit. A typical schematic of a submarine cable system is shown below.
The PFE and the SLTE of a submarine cable system are installed at the cable landing station. In some cases, the PFE is installed at a cable landing station nearby the cable landing site, while the SLTE may be installed in another cable landing station much faraway. For example, the terminal station at Hillsboro for the SLTE of the TPE cable system is about 150 mile away from the cable landing site at Nedonna Beach.
Multiple submarine cable systems may share the same cable landing stations. The submarine cable system is connected with the terrestrial network at the cable landing station, through the so called backhaul system.
The cable landing site is usually carefully chosen to be in areas:
Multiple types of submarine cables may be used in a submarine cable system, subject to depth of the seabed where the cable lies.
The double armored submarine cable is used at the shore-end, terminated at the beach manhole at the cable landing site, and is interconnected with much lighter land cable going onward to the cable landing station.
In most of the jurisdictions worldwide, the cable landing license is required to land a submarine cable.
There are now 7 submarine cable landing stations in China.
China Telecom owns three cable landing stations, including
China Unicom owns four cable landing stations, including:
Currently, there are three major areas for landing of submarine cables in Hong Kong, with cable landing stations at:
Japan is the Hub for trans-Pacific and intra-Asia submarine networks, most of the trans-pacific submarine cable systems landing in Japan. There are more submarine cable landing stations in Japan than any other Asian countries, including Ajigaura, Chikura, Emi, Kita Ibaraki, Maruyama, Okinawa, Shin-Maruyama, Toyohashi and Wada cable landing stations.
There are now four active cable landing stations in Korea, namely the Pusan Cable Landing Station, the Keoje Cable Landing Station, the C2C Pusan Cable Landing Station and the Taean Cable Landing Station, connecting APCN, APCN-2, C2C, China-US CN, EAC, FNAL/RNAL, FLAG FEA, RJCN, R-J-K and TPE submarine cable systems.
According to the Guidelines on Deployment of Submarine Cables into Singpaore issued by the Info-communications Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) in August 2010, all new submarine cable systems can only be deployed to three designated landing sites in Singapore, namely the Changi North landing site, the Tanah Merah landing site, and the Tuas landing site, and each landing site is available on a first-come-first-served basis.
There are now 9 submarine cables landing in Taiwan, including APCN, APCN-2, C2C, China-US CN, EAC, FLAG FEA, FNAL/FNAL, SMW3 and TPE, with cable landing stations at Tanshui, Pali, Toucheng and Fangshan.
The Philippines takes an important position in the business process outsourcing (BPO) industry worldwide. Submarine networks serve as critical components to the BPO industry, providing reliable and diverse links between the Philippines and the rest of the world.
There are now seven submarine cable systems landing in the Philippines, including APCN, APCN-2, C2C, EAC, TGN-IA, AAG and Guam-Philippines, distributed in five cable landing stations in Batangas, Ballesteros, Capepisa, La Union and Nasugbu.
There are now 9 international submarine cables landing in Malaysia, including APCN, APCN-2, AAG, SMW3, SMW4, FEA, and several cables between Malaysia and Indonesia such as Batam-Dumai-Melaka (BDM) Cable System, Dumai Malaka Cable System (DMCS) and Batam-Rengit Cable System (BRCS).
Currently, international submarine cables land in Thailand via 3 submarine cable landing stations, namely the Sri Racha Cable Landing Station, the Petchaburi Cable Landing Station, and the Songkhla Cable Landing Station.
The undergoing intra-Asia submarine cable system, South-east Asia Japan Cable (SJC) is going to land at the Songkhla Cable Landing Station.
The SEA-ME-WE 3 (SMW3) is currently the only international submarine cable system reaching Myanmar, landing at the Pyapon Cable Landing Station in Myanmar.
Cable Landing Stations in Brunei
There are two cable landing stations in Sri Lanka, the Mount Lavinia Cable Landing Stations for SMW3 and BLCS cable systems, and the Colombo Cable Landing Station for FALCON, SEA-ME-WE-4,SLT-Dhiraagu and SAFE cable systems.
The SEA-ME-WE-4 (SMW4) submarine cable system is currently the sole international optic fiber submarine cable landing in Bangladesh, with a cable landing station at Cox's Bazaar, built and owned by Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company (BSCCL) .
Since the landing of SMW4, the Internet infrastructure in Bangladesh has been significantly improved. The SMW4 is now the main link for the international internet gateway in Bangladesh, and is the truly and sole submarine internet cable in Bangladesh.
Mango, the only private sector international internet gateway (IIG) operator of Bangladesh, is connected to the global internet using the SEA-ME-WE 4 submarine cable system. Mango won its license through an open auction from Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) on February 25, 2008.
The Bangladesh Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (BTRC) issued draft licensing guidelines for two new submarine cable licences in early 2010. Each licensee should build a separate landing station within the general area of Khula-Patuakhali-Barisal-Chittagong, and should provide access, co-location and landing facilities to other submarine cable licensees, as and when required by the BTRC.
Besides the international submarine communication cable connecting Bangladesh, there are three terrestrial cables on India-Bangladesh boarders in Jessore, Sylhet-Comilla and Kurigram which may also bring Bangladesh into the global communication network.
Cable landing stations in the West Coast of the U.S. link most of the trans-pacific cables westward to Asia, Oceania, Hawaii, Guam, also connect with the submarine cables reaching Mexico and South America, as well as northward cables connecting Canada and the State of Alaska.
In the U.S., cables and cable landings are under the jurisdiction of the Federal Communications Commission and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 USC 4321-4327]). The U.S. Department of State also has a role. Cable Landing License is required to land a submarine cable in the U.S..
Guam is a natural hub and communication gateway for trans-Pacific telecommunications. On this 212-square-mile island, Guam arguably has one of the most extensive telecom infrastructures in the Asia Pacific region and most areas throughout the United States. There are currently 10 separate submarine cables with landing points in Guam, connecting Asia and Australia with the United States, via three cable landing stations in Guam -- Tumon Bay, Piti and Tanguisson -- allowing local interconnections to alternate routes and cable diversity. The cables landing in Guam include CUCN, AAG, AJC and Guam-Philippine at Tanguisson station, TPC-5, AJC and Pacrim West at Tumon Bay station, TGN-Pacific, TGN-IA and PPC-1 at Piti station.
There are 7 major transpacific submarine cables landing in Hawaii, distributed at 5 cable landing stations in Hawaii island, including
Because of the increasing importance of submarine cables, the Australian Government introduced legislation designed to protect the most critical submarine cables—the Telecommunications and Other Legislation Amendment (Protection of Submarine Cables and Other Measures) Act 2005. The legislation allows the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) to declare submarine cable protection zones in Australian waters over submarine cables of national significance. The ACMA has declared three submarine cable protection zones:
American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of the sovereign state of Samoa (formerly known as Western Samoa). The 2000 census showed a total population of 57,291 people. The total land area is 76.1 square miles (197.1 km2). American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the United States.
There is one international fiber optic cable between American Samoa, Samoa and Hawaii, the ASH/SAS Cable, and connects America Samoa to the existing global telecommunications infrastructure networks.
The ASH/SAS Cable lands at the Pago Pago Cable Landing Station.
Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa, formerly known as Western Samoa and German Samoa, is a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. It became independent from New Zealand in 1962. The two main islands of Samoa are Upolu and one of the biggest islands in Polynesia, Savai'i. The capital city, Apia, and Faleolo International Airport are situated on the island of Upolu.
Samoa is connected into the global submarine networks with the Samoa American Samoa Cable (SAS Cable), and onward connectivity with the American Samoa Hawaii Cable (ASH Cable).
The ASH/SAS Cable lands at the Apia Cable Landing Station.
French Polynesia is an overseas collectivity or constituent country of the French Republic. It is made up of several groups of Polynesian islands, the most famous island being Tahiti in the Society Islands group, which is also the most populous island and the seat of the capital of the territory (Papeete).
There are several cable landing stations in French Polynesia, including Vaitape, Uturoa, Huahine, Moorea and Papenoo cable landing stations.
The Papenoo Cable Landing Station in Tahiti island is the cable landing station for the Honotua submarine cable connecting French Polynesia and Hawaii, with onward connectivity to link French Polynesia with global submarine networks.
There are three cable landing stations in New Zealand, namely the Whenuapai Cable Landing Station, the Takapuna Cable Landing Station and the Auckland Cable Landing Station
It is currently only one submarine cable connecting New Zealand, i.e., the Southern Cross Cable Network which land at Whenuapai Cable Landing Station on the West Coast of New Zealand and the Takapuna Cable Landing Station on the East Coast of New Zealand.
The second international submarine cable system to link New Zealand is underway, i.e. the Pacific Fibre Cable System which is going to land in Auckland.
A Chinese consortium (China Telecom and Huawei Marine) announced in September 2011 to build a new trans-tasman submarine cable linking New Zealand and Australia, which will be the third submarine cable system landing in New Zealand.
It is currently one international submarine cable linking Papua New Guinea, i.e., the PPC-1 cable landing at the Madang Cable Landing Station in Papua New Guinea.