Post 2015 we left behind the era of submarine cables that took off in mid-1990’s, stumbled in early 2000’s and recovered cautiously post 2010 and witnessed an unprecedented surge post 2015, flagging off a golden era. Over 2010-2015, it was observed time and again that lifecycle management of large consortia cable systems were really challenging. Hence post 2015, the size of consortiums reduced significantly and settled for 3-6 members in most cases, except for the Asia-Europe corridor. Along with it, number of countries connected also reduced to 2-4, albeit with few exceptions. This was enabled by lower cost of submarine cable construction, that dropped to $25,000 to $35,000 per kilometer. One of the main reasons for shrinking size of consortiums was overzealous preference for fiber pair(s) ownership instead of tranche of capacity proportional to investment, for greater independence and flexibility and deploy new optical transmission technology to multiplex more wavelengths per fiber pair and pack greater capacity in each wavelength. This led to new service innovations and optical spectrum and fractionated or virtual fiber pair became standard service offering creating affordably scalable models, allowing new consortium members to onboard midway.