On Submarine Cable Networks, Systems are categorized in accordance with their corresponding coverage, resepctively:

 

The first trans-Pacific submarine cable system, TPC-1 (Trans Pacific Cable 1), was put into servie on on June 19, 1964. It's a submarine coaxial cable linking Japan, Guam, Havaii and mainland U.S.A. via Hawaii, with a small capacity of only 128 telephone lines. After that, many transpacific submarine cable systems were built continuously.

Now, the in-service transpacifc submarine cable systems include AAG, China-US CN, Japan-US CN, Pacific Crossng 1, Southern Cross Cable Network, Telstra Endeavour, TGN Pacific, TPC-5, TPE, Unity, etc.  

The Asia-America Gateway (AAG) is the first submarine cable system linking South East Asia directly with the USA, provides connectivity between Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Hong Kong SAR, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii and the US West Coast . The AAG submarine cable system spans 20,000km and uses the latest Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technologies with a minimum design capacity of 1.28 terrabits per second.The AAG submarine cable system has significant advantages over the traditional trans-Pacific routes (via the North Pacific) as it avoids the areas most prone to seismic activity off the Taiwan region, which have previously resulted in damage to undersea cables and network disruptions. The AAG submarine cable system was ready for service on Nov. 10, 2009.  

China-US CN (China-US Cable Network or CUCN) is the first submarine cable system with direct cable routes linking the U.S. and China, reaching several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. This trans-pacific subsea optical fiber cable system was planned in 1997 and put into service in early 2000, constructed by a consortium including AT&T, China Telecom, NTT, KT, CHT etc.. China-US CN subsea cable consists of four optical fiber pairs in its northern trans-pacific trunk between Chongming cable landing station and Bandon cable landing station, and southern trans-pacific trunk between Shantou cable landing station and San Lius Obispo cable landing station, as well as the western and eastern trunks linking Shantou- Chongming, and Bandon-San Lius Obispo respectively, with branches to Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Guam. China-US CN was designed with 8x2.488 Gbps (STM-16) SDH over DWDM, a total of 80 Gbps trans-pacific system capacity with SDH self-healing ring protection. China-US CN was the largest trans-pacific subsea cable system as of its commencement of service.

Japan-US CN (Japan-US Cable Network or JUSCN) is the first high capacity trans-pacific subsea cable system using DWDM technology of 10 Gbps per wavelength. Japan-US CN consists of four fiber pairs, each operating at 10 Gbps DWDM, with design capacity of 640 Gbit/s. Initially, Japan-US CN operated at 80 Gbit/s with two lit fiber pairs, expanding to 400 Gbps in mid 2001 by lighting the two remaining fiber pairs each with 16 wavelengths at 10 Gbps per wavelength, further upgrading to 1.28 Tbps in early 2008.

PC-1 submarine cable system is owned and operated wholy by Pacific Crossing, an NTT Communications Corporation company. This trans-pacific submarine cable system PC-1 netowrk consists of 4 optical fiber pairs, uses the state-of-the-art technology for optical transmission and submarine cable system, forms protected network rings, connecting the U.S. and Japan. The 21,000km PC-1 submarine cable system offers the highest reliability and the lowest latency across the Pacific. Supported by extensive backhaul into major U.S. and Japanese cities, Pacific Crossing’s infrastructure offers seamless interconnection to virtually every major international network operator for onward global access. With PC-1 network, Pacific Crossing delivers state-of-the-art capacity and managed network services at competitive prices to a growing customer base of carriers and media and information transport-intensive enterprise customers. PC-1 offers protected trans-pacific capacity up to 10Gbps (SDH and wavelength), as well as Ethernet services up to 10G LAN PHY and 10G WAN PHY. In July 2013,  the PC-1 network was upgraded with 100G coherent technology, offering 100GE connections from Japan to the USA.

TGN-Pacific (Tata TGN-Pacific, a part of Tyco Global Network, ) was initially builded, designed and operated wholly by Tyco Telecommunications, completed in December 2002. TGN forms a self-healing ring connecting the U.S. to Japan, with north route linking Emi and Hilsboro, and south route linking Toyohashi, and branches to Piti Guam and Los Angeles. On May 3, 2005, Tata Communications(formerly VSNL) announced the acquisition of TGN for $130 million,or Rs 585 crore, in a cash deal.

TPE or Trans-Pacific Express submarine cable system is the second subsea cable system directly linking China and USA, aims to offer high capacity between USA and China as well as other Asian countries and regions. The consortium of TPE includes 6 initial parties from China Unicom and China Netcom (which are consilidated as China Unicom), China Telecom, Verizon Business, Korea Telecom, Chunghwa Telecom, sharing the joint investment of US$ 500 million and equal rights of vote and capacity ownership. NTT and AT&T participated in the consortium in March 2008.  TPE was completed in September 30, 2008. The design capacity of TPE cable system is 5.12Tbps, operating at 10Gbps DWDM.

Unity is a linear Trans-Pacific submarine cable system, ready for service on April 1, 2010. Unity cable is about 9,620 km between Chikura, Japan and Los Angeles, USA. Unity cable system consists of eight fiber pairs, has design capacity up to 7.68 Tbps, with each fiber pair operating at 96x10G DWDM system. Unity offers unique PoP-PoP connectivity between Japan and West Coast of USA. Unity Consortium comprises Bharti Airtel, Global Transit, Google, KDDI Corp., Pacnet, and SingTel, represents a new type of consortium, born out of potentially competing systems, to emerge as a system within a system, offering ownership and management of individual fiber pairs for each consortium member. The initial construction cost of Unity cable system is approximately $300 million.

The New Cross Pacific [NCP] Cable System is a new generation high capacity fibre-optic submarine cable system across the Pacific Ocean directly connecting the US and Asia with landings in China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan and the US.

With a target Ready for Service date in the fourth quarter of the year 2015, the NCP is expected to serve as key infrastructure across the Pacific by providing the foundation for new bandwidth-intensive services which are already transforming people’s lifestyles and business practices. The NCP will be designed to interconnect with other cable systems in the region to maximize the throughput of data and the resilience of the Trans-Pacific transmission infrastructure.

The NCP consortium consists of Chunghwa Telecom, KT Corporation, China Telecom, China Mobile, China Unicom and a US based company.

The TPC-5 Cable Network (TPC-5 CN) is the first self-healing trans-Pacific undersea optic fiber ring network. The TPC-5 CN consists two optic fiber pairs, stretching 22560 km, linking six cable landing stations in Japan, Guam, Hawaii and the US mainland. The TPC-5 CN forms a four-fiber-ring automatic protection switching network among the six cable landing stations, each fiber pair capable of 5 Gbps transmission.

The southern route of the TPC-5 CN was put into service in 1995, while its northern route was ready for service on December 31, 1996. The consortium member invested totally US$1.24 billion in the TPC-5 cable network.

The Southern Cross Cable Network forms a protected ring network among 9 cable landing stations (two each in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii and the US mainland, and one in Fiji) and an access point in San Jose, California. The Southern Cross Cable Network contains 3 fiber pairs between Sydney and Hawaii, and 4 fiber pairs between Hawaii and the US West Coast, with almost 30,500 km in length, including 28,900km of submarine cable and 1,600km of terrestrial cable. The Southern Cross Cable Network is working with 10 Gbps DWDM system with design capacity of 1.2 Tbps, and the system is capable of upgrading with 40 Gbps DWDM technology. The Ready for Service (RFS) for Phase A of the Southern Cross network - comprising all nine stations and all segments except Segment D (from Hawaii to California) - was achieved on 15 November 2000. Completion of the fully protected loop network (RFS Phase B) was achieved on 28 February 2001.

On July 30, 2013, Southern Cross announced the completion of upgrade with Ciena's 100G technology, increasing its lit capacity to 2.6Tbps and system capacity to 12Tbps.

The Telstra Endeavour cable system is 100 per cent Telstra-owned submarine cable system between Sydney and Hawaii, the largest ever commissioned by an Australian company. The Telstra Endeavour provides an improvement in latency over existing submarine cable systems. At 90ms (Sydney-Hawaii) and 138ms (Sydney-Los Angeles via Endeavour and AAG), it is now the shortest path from Australia to the USA.

 

The Guam-Philippines Cable System (G-P Cable System) consists of two optical fiber pairs between the Batangas Cable Landing Station in the Philippines and the Tanguisson Cable Landing Station in Guam. The Guam-Philippines Cable System was ready for service in March 1999, with a design capacity of 40 Gbps (2x8x2.5 Gbps).

The America Samoa Hawaii Cable (ASH Cable) is the international fiber optic cable between American Samoa, Samoa and Hawaii and connects Samoa to the existing global telecommunications infrastructure networks.

The ASH Cable comprises of two cables installed between Samoa, American Samoa and Hawaii.

In addition, the Samoa-American Samoa Cable (SAS Cable) will provide inter-island communication, as well as enabling users in Samoa to access the ASH cable capacity and connect to the global networks.

While ASH Cable and SAS Cable are much smaller than the gargantuan systems across the North Pacific, they will provide more than 40 times the capacity currently in use in both island groups combined.

The ASH cable project is significantly different from the traditional submarine cable provisioning. The Samoan islands are in a fortunate position to re-utilize the former PACRIM East cable between Hawaii and Auckland that runs along the seabed, about 100 miles east of Pago Pago in the island of America Samoa.

The PACRIM East cable was the original fibre optic cable across the Pacific, laid in the 1990’s. It had large capacity then but by today’s standards its capacity is insufficient to effectively service the needs of New Zealand and Australia. As such, larger capacity cables – Southern Cross and Telstra Australia’s Sydney-Hawaii cables with capacities of Terabits – service their needs.

The project involves recovering the PACRIM East cable from the seabed south east of American Samoa, cutting it and laying it into American Samoa at Pago Pago. During the pick-up process, additional cable will be recovered for re-laying between Pago Pago and Apia, Samoa.

Major cost saving has been achieved in relaying the fibre cable as only a small section of the cable is being recovered and re-laid.

The ASH/SAS Cable consists of three cable landing stations, i.e., the Keawaula Cable Landing Station in Hawaii, the Pago Pago  Cable Landing Station in American Samoa, and the Apia Cable Landing Station in Samoa. The ASH/SAS Cable was ready for service on 28 May 2009.

Honotua is a 5000 Km submarine communications cable system that connects several islands of French Polynesia via Tahiti to Hawaii, USA. The international portion of the Honotua cable contains a single fiber pair designed with 32x10 Gbps DWDM system, with initial lit capacity of 2x10 Gbps. The domestic system comprises of 2 fiber pairs designed with 8x10 Gbps each, with an initial lit capacity of 2x2.5 Gbps. It has cable landing points at:

  • Vaitape,Bora Bora,French Polynesia
  • Uturoa,Raiatea, French Polynesia
  • Huahine, French Polynesia
  • Moorea, French Polynesia
  • Papenoo,Tahiti, French Polynesia
  • Spencer Beach,Kawaihae,

The Honotua Cable stretches 4,650 kilometers (2,890 miles) between Kawaihae, Hawaii and Tahiti, French Polynesia.

The baptismal name bestowed to this Polynesian project, HONOTUA, perfectly reflects the philosophy that lies behind it. HONO means link in the Tahitian language. It is the link between the human beings, peoples, cultures and civilizations. TUA means the open sea, the high seas. But it is also the back, the backbone. Thus HONOTUA is the link that relates Polynesian to the rest of the world, the backbone on which all the information channels interconnect.

The Palau-Guam submarine cable system initiated by Palau Telecom,l provides high capacity fiber optic connectivity between Palau and Guam, enabling connectivity to the US Mainland, the Asia Pacific region, Australia and New Zealand via interconnects with existing and planned submarine cable systems landed in Guam.

Palau Telecoms selects Xtera as the turnkey supplier of the Palau-Guam submarine cable system.

FASTER is a new trans-pacific cable system, landing at Chikura and Shima in Japan and seamlessly connecting many neighboring cable systems to extend the capacity beyond Japan to other Asian locations, and reaching major hubs on the US West Coast covering the Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland and Seattle areas.

FASTER features the latest high-quality 6-fiber-pair cable and 100Gb/s x 100 wavelengths optical transmission technologies, with an initial design capacity of 60Tb/s.

The FASTER consortium is comprised of China Mobile International, China Telecom Global, Global Transit, Google, KDDI and SingTel.

The total investment for the FASTER cable system is estimated to be approximately USD $300 million, and FASTER is targeted to be ready-for-service during the second quarter of 2016.

Pacific Light Cable Network (PLCN), the first submarine cable directly connecting Hong Kong and the US, spanning 12800 km, designed with the state-of-the-air C+L band optical technology, capable of equipping 240 channels of 100Gbps in a single fiber pair (100G * 240 WL). 

The SEA-US cable system will link the five areas and territories of Manado in Indonesia, Davao in Southern Philippines; Piti in the territory of Guam; as well as Honolulu (on the island of Oahu), Hawaii; and Los Angeles, California in the continental U.S.

The system will be approximately 15,000 kilometers in length, stretched along a unique route and has been designed and engineered to bypass earthquake prone areas in East Asia, thereby providing a strategic diversity in the range of connectivity to transpacific networks with ensured stable connectivity.

The US $250 million SEA-US cable system is expected to be completed in the fourth quarter of 2016.

Since the first transatlantic submarine cable system, TAT-1, went into service on 25 September 1956, there have been 26 submarine cable systems accross the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the transatlantic submarine cable systems have been retired of communications service.

Now, the in-service trans-Atlantic submarine cable systems include CANTAT-3, TAT-14, Apollo, Atlantic Crossing 1 (AC-1), Atlantic Crossing 2 (AC-2, also called Yellow), Columbus-III, FLAG Atlantic 1 (FA-1), Hibernia Atlantic, Tata TGN Atlantic.

And construction of new trans-Atlantic submarine cable systems, including Hibernia Atlantic's Project Express and Emerald Atlantis,  are underway and expexted to be ready for service in the end of 2012 or early 2013.

Apollo is a 13,000 transatlantic submarine cable system. The Apollo cable system consists of 2 segments North and South, creating two fully diverse transatlantic paths. Apollo North connects the United Kingdom and the USA and Apollo South directly connects France and the USA.

Apollo was ready for service in February 2003, with a design capacity of 6.4 Tbps (3.2 Tbps on both North and South segments).

Apollo offers point to point 10 Gbit/s SDH and LAN PHY wavelengths between the major cities and carrier pops on the US Eastern seaboard and Western Europe.

The Apollo cable network is owned and operated by Apollo Submarine Cable System Limited, a UK based company jointly owned by Cable & Wireless Worldwide and Alcatel-Lucent.

The AC-1 (Atlantic Crossing 1) is a 14,000 km trans-Atlantic submarine cable system linking the USA and three European countries, the U.K., the Netherlands and Germany.

The AC-2 (Atlantic Crossing 2, also known as Yellow) is a 6,400 km trans-Atlantic submarine cable system linking the USA and the UK. The AC-2 was put into service in January 2007, with an initial design capacity of 320 Gbps.

COLUMBUS III is a 9,900 km transatlantic submarine cable linking the US, Portugal, Spain and Italy. COLUMBUS III was ready for service in December 1999, with 2 fiber pairs and a design capacity of 20 Gbps.

The FA-1 (FLAG Atlantic 1) is a 14500 transatlantic submarine cable system linking the US, the UK and France. The FA-1 was ready for service in June 2001.

Hibernia Atlantic is a 12,200 km private transatlantic submarine cable system in the North Atlantic Ocean, connecting Canada, the United States, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Hibernia Atlantic Submarine Cable System was ready for service on April 8, 2001, with a design capacity of 10.16 Tbps.

Hibernia Express is a 4,600 km and 6-pair Trans-Atlantic submarine cable system linking Canada and the United Kingdom. Project Express is built with the state-of-the-art submarine network technology, specifically designed for the financial community stretching from North America to Europe. Hibernia Express offers the lowest latency route from New York to London with 58.55ms round trip delay.

Hibernia Express is privately-owned by Hibernia Atlantic, and form a part of Hibernia Atlantic's Global Financial Network which is specifically designed to meet the demanding performance and reliability requirements of the financial community.

Hibernia Express is ready for service on September 15, 2015.

 

The TAT-14 is a 15,428 km transatlantic submarine cable system, connecting the United States to the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark. The TAT-14 cable system is comprised of four fiber pairs, each operating at 40 x 10 Gbps DWDM, with a total design capacity of 3.2 Tbps. 

With a partial SDH ring protection network structure, the TAT-14 cable system has a total system capacity of 1.87Tbs calculated as: 
Southern route: 41 x 10Gbs channels + 640 Gbs SDH capacity 
Northern route: 18 x 10Gbs channels + 640 Gbs SDH capacity 
Total = 1.87 Tbs

The TAT-14 cable system was ready for service on March 21, 2001.

TGN-Atlantic is a 13,000 km transatlantic submarine cable system linking the United States and the United Kingdom. TGN-Atlantic was ready for service in June 2001.

America Europe Connect (AEConnect), formerly called Emerald Express, is a private trans-Atlantic undersea cable system owned by AquaComms, connecting Shirley, NY and Killala on the West Coast of Ireland, spanning more than 5,400 km with stubbed branching units for future landings, using CeltixConnect, an Irish Sea subsea cable wholly owned by AquaComms, to provide extended connectivity to London and greater Europe.

Featuring the latest technology of 130 Gbps x 100 Gbps per fibre pair, AEConnect provides low latency connectivity across the Atlantic.

AEConnect is scheduled to be ready for service in December 2015.

AquaComms incorporates people and plans from the former Emerald Express/Emerald Networks project. AquaComms is the parent of Sea Fibre Networks, which built CeltixConnect.

MAREA is a new 6,600 km submarine cable system cross the Atlantic, connecting the United States to southern Europe: from Virginia Beach, Virginia to Bilbao, Spain and then beyond to network hubs in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. 

MEREA is designed with eight fiber pairs and an initial estimated design capacity of 160Tbps.

MEREA is jointly built and designed by Facebook and Microsoft, to be operated and managed by Telxius.

Intra-Asia Submarine Cable Systems

The Asia Pacific Cable Network (APCN)  is a 12000km pan-Asia submarine cable system linking Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. The Asia Pacific Cable Network (APCN) is the world's fourth submarine cable system using optical-amplifier technology, with a design capacity of 5 Gbps.

The APCN has a one fiber pair extension cable to Australia, linking Jakarta (Indonesia) with Port Headland (Australia) through the Lombok Strait. The APCN Australian Extension is also know as the Jasuruas cable system.

C2C

The Asia Pacific Cable Network 2 (APCN-2) is a 19,000-km optical fiber submarine cable system linking Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore in a ring configuration, with four fiber pairs connecting 10 submarine cable landing stations in Asia region.

The APCN-2 is the first submarine cable system that has a self-healing function in the Asia Region, and is capable of restoring itself instantly with its ring configuration when a failure occurs in a part of the system.

The APCN-2 has a design capacity of 2.56 Tbps by operating with 64x10 Gbps DWDM technology.

 

The EAC-C2C Network is a merger of the EAC network and the C2C network, wholly owned by Pacnet, Asia’s largest privately-owned submarine cable network, with a design capacity of 17.92 Tbps to 30.72 Tbps, a total cable length of 36,800 km, and 17 cable landing stations covering Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore. 

The East Asia Crossing (EAC) cable system spans 19,800 km, linking Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore. The EAC network was initially constructed by Asia Global Crossing which was acquired by China Netcom in 2002. And then China Netcom sold out Asia Netcom (including the EAC network assets) to an investor group led by Ashmore and Spinnaker in 2006.

The City-to-City (C2C) cable system stretches 17,000, linking Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore. The C2C network was initially constructed by SingTel in 2000-2002.

In 2007, Asia Netcom (now Pacnet) took over the control of C2C and merged the EAC and C2C networks into an integrated EAC-C2C Network.

For more description on EAC and C2C cable systems, please visit EAC cable system overview and C2C cable system overview.

The Flag North Asian Loop(FNAL) or Reach North Asian Loop (/RNAL) each represents a part of a 9,800 km Intra-Asia submarine cable system, the North Asian Loop submarine cable system linking Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong in a ring configuration.

The entire FNAL/RNAL submarine cable system consists of 6 fiber pairs, initially designed with 64x10 Gbps DWDM technology. Reliance Globalcom (FLAG Telecom) and PCCW Global (Reach) each owns three of the six fiber pairs respectively.

The North Asian Loop cable system was jointly built by FLAG Telecom and Level 3 Communication.

Level 3 Communications built its eastern leg connecting Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan and put it into service in July 2001. In the end of 2001, Reach acquired the North Asian Loop and other assets from Level 3 Communications. In March 2011, PCCW Global announced the completion of Reach's joint-venture alignment to take over most part of Reach's assets including the RNAL.

FLAG Telecom built the western leg connecting Hong Kong, Korea and Japan. And Reliance acquired FLAG Telecom in 2003.

In August 2011, Reliance Globalcom successfully upgraded it FNAL to 40G submarine network, to introduce 10G LAN PHY and OTN services in the FNAL submarine cable network. 

PCCW Global announced in January 2012 to upgrade the RNAL with 100G network solutions.

For more information about the FNAL/RNAL cable system, please click here

RNAL

TGN-Intra Asia Cable System (TGN-IA) is a private Intra-Asia submarine cable system constructed, owned and operated by Tata Communications. The TGN-IA cable spans 6800 km, consists of 4 fibre pairs linking Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, the Philippines, Vietnam and Guam, with a design capacity of 3.84 Tbit/s. The TGN-IA cable route was deliberately designed to avoid areas prone to earthquakes and other hazardous areas, such as south and east coast of Taiwan Island. The TGN-IA cable system offers a low latency direct route between Tokyo and Singapore (63 ms). And the TGN-IA, the TIC and the TGN-Pacific together form an integrate submarine network to connect Asia and the United States.

Matrix Cable System (MCS) is a carrier neutral international fiber optic submarine cable that serves Singapore - Jakarta with high speed, high capacity and non-stop quality links. The MCS cable spans approximately 1055km from Singapore to Jakarta, with maximum design capacity of 2.56Tbps.  The MCS Offers PoP-to-PoP Connectivity between Singapore and Indonesia. The MCS was Ready for Provisional Acceptance (RFPA) on August 7, 2008.

 

TIC (Tata Indicom Cable), also known as TIISCS (Tata Indicom India-Singapore Cable System), is a submarine cable linking India and Singapore. The TIC cable spans 3,175 km, lands in  Chennai, India and Changi, Singapore. Construction of the cable TIC began in November 2003 and went on live on September 15, 2004. The TIC cable system comprises of 8 fiber pairs, operates with 64x10 Gbps DWDM technology, with a design capacity of 5.12 Tbps. The TIC cable system is 100% owned and operated by Tata Communications.

 

The MIC-1 (Moratelindo International Cable-system One) is a linear repeaterless optic fiber submarine cable system connecting Singapore and Batam Island, Indonesia. The MIC cable length is about 70km, lands at Changi Cable Landing Station and Batam Cable Landing Station.

The MIC1 cable system has been designed to have a minimum capacity of 10Gbits (STM-64) with the capability of accommodating Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM). The MIC cable system was ready for service in January 2008.

The MIC cable system is a private cable constructed, owned and operated by Moratel (PT Mora Telematika Indonesia), a wholesale telecom infrastructure providers established in 2000 in Indonesia.

The Korea-Japan Cable Network (KJCN) is a consortium cable with diverse direct connections between Korea and Japan. The KJCN cables consist of 12 fiber pair on both cable routes, with a total cable length of 500km and a design capacity of 2.88 Tbps. There is no repeater and hence no PFE (Power Feeding Equipment) in the KJCN cable system. The C&MA of the KJCN was signed on May 25, 2001, and the KJCN was ready for service on March 23, 2002, offering high quality, reliance broadband services for the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan.

In March 2001, SingTel and Bharti Group formed a 50:50 private submarine cable development company, Network i2i, for the construction of the i2i cable network (i2icn) which was the world's largest cable network in terms of bandwidth capacity (8.4 Tbps) then.  The i2i submarine cable consists of 8 fiber pairs connecting Tuas cable landing station in Singapore and Chennai cable landing station in India, spans 3100 km. The entire i2i cable network utilises the latest Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology, with 105 wavelengths of 10 Gbps when fully equipped.  The i2i cable network was completed in April 2002. In January 2007, the i2i cable network became 100% owned by Bharti Airtel.

The South-East Asia Japan Cable System (SJC) is a new generation 8900 km (to be extended to 9700 km later) submarine cable system connecting 7 Asian countries and regions including Brunei, Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, the Philippines and Thailand. The SJC cable consists of 6 fiber pairs, with an initial design capacity of 28 Tbps. The SJC cable system utilizes the state-of-the-art advanced 100G SLTE and OADM Branching technologies.  The  SJC is ready for service on June 27, 2013.

The Asia-Pacific Gateway (APG) is an undersea cable system linking 8 countries and regions in Asia-Pacific region, i.e., Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mainland China, Japan, and Korea.

When it was initiated in May 2009, the APG consortium included PLDT(the Philippines), Chunghwa Telecom (Taiwan), China Telecom and China Unicom (mainland China), KT Corp. (Korea), NTT Communications (Japan), Telekom Malaysia (Malaysia), and VNPT (Vietnam).

As NTT Com, PLDT, StarHub and Telekom Malaysia have signed the C&MA to form another consortium for the construction of the Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE), and another consortium including KDDI, SingTel, China Telecom, China Mobile, Globe Telecom, Google,etc has also signed the C&MA for the construction of the South-East Asia Japan Cable (SJC), the APG consortium has been in a difficulty to team up enough parties to invest in the APG cable system.

Though initiated earlier than the ASE  and the SJC, the APG has lagged far behind its competitors.

On December 20,2011, the APG consortium which includes Chunghwa Telecom, KT and NTT and other members signed in Beijing the APG C&MA and the Supply Contract which is awarded to NEC. But the APG C&MA was not effective until early July 2012 when Facebook and Time dotCom were enrolled to form the final 12-member APG consortium, including China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom, Chunghwa Telecom, Facebook, KT Corp, LG Uplus, NTT Communications, StarHub, Time dotCom (Global Transit)  Viettel and VNPT.

The APG cable system is expected to launch by the third quarter of 2014.

 

The Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE) is a 7200-km intra-Asia submarine cable system constructed by a consortium including NTT, PLDT, StarHub and Telekom Malaysia. The ASE cable consists of 6 fiber pair, connecting Japan to the Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore,with branch to Hong Kong and potential landing in Mainland China.  The ASE cable system is designed with the state-of-the-art 40 Gbps transmission and OADM technologies, with capability to incorporate 100 Gbps technology.

The ASE cable system was launched for service on August 20, 2012.

Telekom Malaysia (TM) holds one-third stake of the ASE consortium and owns two dedicated fiber pair in the ASE cable system, with which TM builds its wholly owned Cahaya Malaysia Cable system.

Cahaya Malaysia is a two-fibre-pair cable system which is part of the 6-fibre-pair Asia Submarine-cable Express(ASE). While Cahaya Malaysia is owned by TM, the remaining 4 fibre pairs of the ASE are owned by NTT, StarHub and PLDT.

The Bharat Lanka Cable System is a 320-km submarine cable systems connecting  India and Sri Lanka. Initially it will have a capacity of 40 Gbit/s that will later be upgraded to 960 Gbit/s.

 

The Thailand - Indonesia - Singapore Cable Network (TIS) is a 1100-km regional submarine network linking Songkhla (Thailand), Batam (Indonesia) and Changi (Singapore). The TIS consortium includes CAT Telecom Public Company Ltd. of Thailand (CAT), PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk of Indonesia (Telin) and Singapore Telecommunications Limited of Singapore (SingTel) which jointly invested 36 million to build the TIS cable network.

The TIS was ready for service on December 2, 2003, with an lit capacity of 30 Gbps and upgradeable up to 320Gbit/s.

 

The Dumai Malaka Cable System (DMCS) is a 147-km repeaterless submarine telecommunications cable system connecting Dumai in Indonesia and Malaka in Malaysia. The DMCS was ready for service in 2005, with a design capacity of 320 Gbps and lit capacity of 20 Gbps. The Dumai Malaka Cable System is supplied by NEC .

The Batam-Dumai-Melaka (BDM) submarine cable is a 400-km intra-Asia regional submarine cable system between Malaysia and Indonesia with two routes, Melaka-Batam and Melaka-Dumai. The BDM consortium includes Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM),  PT XL Axiata Tbk and PT Mora Telematika of Indonesia. Huawei Marine Networks offers end-to-end turnkey submarine system solutions for the BDM project.

The BDM cable system has a capacity of 80 Gbps. And the BDM cable project is expected to be completed by the fourth quarter of 2011.

The West Asia Crossing (WAC) is a intra-Asia submarine cable system planed by Pacnet. The WAC connects India through a landing station in Chennai, to both Malaysia and Singapore. The WAC is also designed to offer the flexibility of extending connectivity into Bangladesh and Sri Lanka through separate branching units, as well as the possibility of a second cable landing point in Mumbai to offer additional capacity to cables landing off the west coast of India.

The WAC will have a design capacity of 6 to 8 Tbps, with a ready-for-service (RFS) date targeted around early 2012.

The Taiwan Strait Express-1 (TSE-1, also known as Tanshui-Fuzhou Submarine Cable) is the first submarine cable across the Taiwan Strait, linking Tanshui, Taiwan island and Fuzhou, mainland China. The TSE-1 submarine cable is about 270 Km, consists of 8 optical fiber pairs. The design capacity of the TSE-1 submarine cable system is 6.4 Tbps.

The TSE-1 consortium consists of China Unicom, China Telecom and China Mobile from mainland China, and Chuanghwa Telecom, Taiwan Mobile, Far Eastone,and TIGC from Taiwan.

The TSE-1 cable project was completed on January 18, 2013.

Though the TSE-1 is widely toasted as the first submarine cable linking Taiwan island and mainland China, the first submarine optical fibre cable linking Taiwan and mainland China is the Kinmen-Xiamen submarine cable system which was ready for service on August 21, 2012, linking Kinmen island, Taiwan and Xiamen, mainland China.

The India Cloud Xchange (ICX) subsea cable system is a private cable to be constructed by Global Cloud Xchange (former Reliance GlobalCom), delivering a direct Mumbai-Singapore route to bypass current outage prone terrestrial routes between Mumbai and Chennai. The ICX subsea cable runs approximately 5,060 kilometers between Mumbai and Singapore.

Based on state-of-the-art 100G technology, the ICX cable is a four fiber pair system with initial design capacity per fiber pair at 80 x 100G.

The ICX cable system is expected tol be ready for service in Q2 2016.

The Bay of Bengal Gateway (BBG) is a new cable system that meets the continued bandwidth growth between the Middle East, the Indian sub-continent and South East Asia.

The BBG cable lands in UAE, Oman, India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia, with a diverse terrestrial network from Malaysia to the Singapore points-of-presence at Equinix and Global Switch.

Connection of traffic to BBG is achieved by using either the 10 Gbit/s or 100 Gbit/s interface. BBG is a three fibre pair cable that extends over 8 000 km, based on 100G DWDM coherent technology with an overall design capacity of 10 Tbit/s per fibre pair.

BBG goes live on April 8, 2016.

SEA Cable Exchange-1 (SeaX-1) comprises a 250km high-speed, large capacity, 24-fibre pair undersea fiber optic cable that connects Mersing (Malaysia), Changi (Singapore), and Batam (Indonesia). 

The SeaX-1 cable system is fully owned and operated by Super Sea Cable Networks Pte. Ltd..

The SeaX-1 cable system is targeted to complete by the end of 2017.

Intra-Europe Submarine Cable Systems

Asia-Europe-Africa Submarine Cable Systems

FLAG

SEA-ME-WE 4

SEACOM

SEA-ME-WE 3

EASSy

SAFE

RJK (Russia-Japan-Korea) is a submarine cable system linking Russia, Japan and Korea. The RJK cable consists of two fiber pairs, stretches of 1762 Km, with three cable landing station:

The RJK cable system was designed with 560 Mbps PDH system over each fiber pair. The RJK cable system began operation in January 1995.

The RJCN (or Russia-Japan Cable Network) is a 1800-km submarine cable system with diverse cable routes connecting Japan and Russia, with a design capacity of 640 Gbps. The RJCN was ready for service on September 5 2008. By interconnecting with the Transit Europe Asia (TEA) terrestrial cable, the RJCN and the TEA can offer the shortest latency (approximately 196 ms) between Tokyo and London. And 10 Gbps transparent wavelength is available on the RJCN and TEA route.

The Hokkaido-Sakhalin Cable System (HSCS) is a undersea cable system between Ishikari, Hokkaido in Japan and Nevelsk, Sakhalin in Russia, jointly built by TTK and NTT. The HSCS has a design capacity of 640 Gbps, with a total cable length of 500 km. And the HSCS was ready for service on July 3, 2008. With the seamless combination of the HSCS and the Europe-Russia-Asia (ERA), a trans-Russia terrestrial backbone of TTK, NTT and TTK can offer an alternative and low latency route for the traffic between Asia and Europe.

Europe India Gateway

IMEWE ( India-Middle East-Western Europe) submarine cable is an ultra high capacity fiber optic submarine cable system which links India & Europe via Middle

TGN Eurasia Cable System is a submarine cable linking Mumbai directly to Paris, London and Madrid via Egypt.

Middle East North Africa (MENA) is a submarine communications cable system that is planned to connect Italy, Greece, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and India. It will be about 8,000 kilometres long.It is planned to be capable of delivering up to 5.7 terabits per second.

The TEA (Transit Europe-Asia) is a terrestrial cable network between Europe and Asia via the territory of Russia, with its Russian segment running over Rostelecom's DWDM network. The Asian segment of the TEA terrestrial cable network may run over:

  • the territory of China via cross border interconnections between Rostelecom and its Chinese partners (China Telecom and China Unicom; or 
  • the territory of Japan via the Russia-Japan Submarine Cable Network (RJCN) constructed by Rostelecom and KDDI; or
  • terrestrial cable between Russia and Kazakhstan reaching Central Asia countries.

The TEA terrestrial cable network enables a short latency and stable solution for traffic transiting Europe and Asia.

The TEA terrestrial cable network is a meaningful alternative to the mainly US centric trans-Pacific cable systems in connecting internet networks between Europe and Asia. 

The GBI (Gulf Bridge International) is a private submarine cable system connecting the Gulf countries together and provide onward connectivity to the rest of the world.

The GBI Cable System is designed with a self-healing core ring in the Gulf, with double cable landings at the major terminals of Qatar and Fujairah (UAE) and branched landings in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, Oman, and onward connectivity to landing in India and Europe as well.

The GBI Cable System is the first submarine cable landing in Iraq, with a cable landing station in Al Faw.

The GBI Cable System is privately owned by Gulf Bridge International, established in December 2008 with an initial investment of $445 million.

The GBI Cable System was launched in Feb. 2012, connecting the world to the Gulf.

Asia-Africa-Europe 1 (AAE-1) is a 25,000km submarine cable from South East Asia to Europe across Egypt, connecting Hong Kong, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia,Singapore, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Yemen, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Greece, Italy and France.

The AAE-1 consortium signed the construction and maintenance agreement in Hong Kong on January 27, 2014. The AAE-1 cable construction is due to be completed in 2016.

The AAE-1 cable is going to open a new era to promote the broadband market across Asia, Africa and Europe. 

The SEA-ME-WE 5 (SMW5) is a 20,000km submarine cable system connecting 17 countries through Points-of-Presence (POPs) from Singapore to the Middle East to France and Italy in Western Europe, with an ultimate system capacity of 24 Tbps.

The SEA-ME-WE 5 consortium consists of 15 leading telecom operators, including BSCCL, China Mobile International, China Telecom Global, China Unicom, Du, Orange, Myanmar Post and Telecom, Telin, Saudi Telecom, SingTel, Sri Lanka Telecom, Telekom Malaysia, Telecom Italia Sparkle, TOT, and Telecom Yemen. The SMW5 consortium signed the construction and maintenace agreement on March 7, 2014.

Alcatel-Lucent and NEC were awarded the SMW5 supply contracts, Alcatel-Lucent will supply the segments from Sri Lanka to France, while NEC will supply the Singapore to Sri Lanka segment.

The Gulf to Africa (G2A) submarine cable system connects Salalah (Oman) to Bosaso (Puntland, Somalia) and Berbera (Somaliland, Somalia).  The G2A Consortium is formed by Omantel (Oman), Telesom (Somaliland, Somalia), Golis (Puntland, Somalia) and Ethio Telecom (Ethiopia).

A 24-terabit-per-second undersea cable will connect Japan and the U.K beneath Arctic waters.

The PPC-1 (PIPE Pacific Cable 1) submarine cable system consists of two segments of digital fiber-optic cable: (1) the Australia-Guam Trunk, connecting Sydney, Australia with Piti, Guam; and (2) the PNG Spur, connecting Madang, Papua New Guinea with a branching unit located on the Australia-Guam Trunk. The Australia-Guam Trunk of the PPC-1 cable system consists of two optical fiber pairs, with a design capacity of 96 wavelengths (10 Gbps) on each fiber pair, for a total design capacity of 1.92 Tbps. The initial configuration of the Australia-Guam Trunk provides a total of 140 Gbps of capacity. The initial configuration of the PNG Spur provides a total of 20 Gbps of capacity, 10 Gbps on the Papua New Guinea-Guam route and 10 Gbps on the Papua New Guinea-Australia route.

The PPC-1 cable project was lunched on January 14, 2008. On September 22, 2009, Internode released a press release claiming successful transmission of IP packets across the PPC-1 cable, making it the first commercial entity to make use of the PPC-1 cable. The PPC-1 cable project was formally completed on October 8, 2009.

 

The Pacific Fibre cable is a new 12,750km (7,920 miles) trans-pacific subsea fiber optic cable linking Australia, New Zealand and the US, with cable landing stations in Sydney, Auckland and Los Angeles. The Pacific Fibre cable system consists of two fiber pairs, with 128 wavelengths per fibre pair. By using the latest 40 Gbps per wavelength technology, the Pacific Fibre is expected to have a capacity of up to 5.12 Tbps, and will be further upgradeable to beyond 12 Tbps with future 100 Gbps per wavelength technology.

The Pacific Fibre is the second international submarine cable system landing in New Zealand, with significant improvement to the international network resilience in New Zealand.

The Pacific Fibre is expected to be ready for service in 2014.

Unfortunately, the Pacific Fibre has ceased operation as at 1 August 2012, citing an inability to raise enough investment to fund the cable build.

Optikor Network is a new trans-Tasman submarine cable system connecting Sydney, Australia with South Island and North Island, New Zealandlink, with a cable length of more than 3000 km. The trans-Tasman Optikor Network is designed to provide initially a capacity of 120 Gbps with 1 fiber pair, and eventually 6.4 Tbps with 2 fibre pairs.

Axin Limited initiated the trans-Tasman Optikor Network in September 2011. Axin Limited, founded in 2010, is fully invested by the Sino Telecommunication, and plays major role in the national broad band project of New Zealand.

The trans-Tasman Optikor Network is expected to be ready for service by the end of 2013.

This  trans-Tasman Optikor Network will address the large capacity requirements in the Tasman region and bring competition to the capacity markets in Australia and New Zealand where are now dominated by the Southern Cross Cable Network and the undergoing Pacific Fibre.

Tasman Global Access (TGA) is submarine cable system designed to significantly improve New Zealand’s international telecoms connectivity and to strengthen the country’s links with Asian markets. The TGA cable spans 2,300km, linking Raglan in New Zealand and Narrabeen in Australia. The TGA cable system will have a design capacity of at least 20Tbps, deploying 100G technology. 

The TGA consortium includes Spark New Zealand (formerly Telecom New Zealand), Vodafone and Telstra which will jointly invest less than $60 million and expect to be ready for service in early 2015.

 

Hawaiki Cable spans 14,000 km, linking Australia, New Zealand, American Samoa, Pacific Island, Hawaii and Oregon, on the U.S. West Coast. It will deliver more than 30 Tbps of capacity and will be the fastest and largest link between the U.S. and Australia and New Zealand

The Hawaiki Cable represents a solution to improve: 
- Trans-Pacific connectivity between Australia, New Zealand and the US 
- Trans-Tasman connectivity between Australia and New Zealand 
- Hawaii connectivity to Continental US 
- Pacific Islands connectivity to New Zealand, Australia and the US 

The Hawaiki Cable is owned and developed by Hawaiki Submarine Cable LP, headquartered in Auckland, New Zealand.

The Hawaiki submarine cable system is expected to be ready for service in June 2018.

Asia-Australia Submarine Cable Systems

The Australia-Singapore Cable (ASC) is a planned 4,800-km multi-terabit submarine cable system linking Perth, Australia and Singapore, through the Sunda Strait in Indonesia, providing potential for the first 100Gbit/s high-speed connection from Western Australia to South East Asia.

The construction of the ASC cable system is expected to start in the first quarter 2012 and commercial operation is planned for 2013.

The AJC Network (Australia Japan Cable Network) is a submarine cable network directly connecting Australia and Japan via Guam, providing 10 Gbit/s wavelengths with a design capacity of up to 64 waves per fibre pair over two fiber pairs. The AJC network runs through the six AJC cable landing stations, with two separate cable landing stations in each of  Japan, Australia and Guam, with a cable length of 12,700 Km. The AJC Network was ready for service on 30 December 2001.

The JASURAUS submarine cable system (also know as APCN  Australian Extension) connects Australia (Port Hedland) with Indonesia (Jakarta), with total cable length of 2800 km and a design capacity of 5 Gbps. and brings Australia to the Asia Pacific Cable Network (APCN).

For more information about the JASURAUS, please refer to APCN cable system overview.

The ASSC-1 submarine cable system is a new cable connecting Australia, Indonesia and Singapore, comprises four fibre pairs and spans a distance of 4,600 km.

The ASSC-1 consists of three express fiber pairs directly linking Perth and Singpare and one omnibus fibre pair between Perth, Jakarta and Singapore.

The ASSC-1 cable system will have an initial design capacity of 6.4 Tbps, running at 40 Gbps technology, with the capability to be upgraded to 100 Gbps in the future.

The ASSC-1 cable system is scheduled to be ready for service by the end of 2013.

The INDIGO cable system is formerly named as APX-West.

In April 2017, AARNet, Google, Indosat Ooredoo, Singtel, SubPartners, and Telstra announced they have entered into an agreement with Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN) to build the INDIGO cable system that will connect Singapore, Indonesia and Australia.

The INDIGO cable system consists of two distinct cable projects, Indigo West connecting Singapore to Perth via Jakarta, and Indigo Central connecting Perth to Sydney.

The INDIGO cable system is designed with two fiber pairs, with a design capacity of around 36 Tbps and option to expand in the future. 

The INDIGO cable system is scheduled to be completed by Q1 2019. 

Papua New Guinea is an island nation located in the South Pacific. The PNG National Submarine Cable Network is built and operated by PNG DataCo Limited, connecting 14 main cities in PNG, and with international connectivity by a link to Jayapura in Indonesia, and interconnection with PPC-1 at Madand cable landing station, onward to Guam and Sydney, Australia. 

The design capacity of the system is 8Tbps. And it is expected to be completed in 2018.

The Eurasia Terrestrial Cable Network is an important part of the global telecom infrastructure, consists of various terrestrial cable systems such as TEA, TEA-2, TEA-3, ERA, ERMC, EKA, CR2, etc, with the efforts and cooperation from carriers in China, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and other Asian and European countries, the Eurasia Terrestrial Cable Network has been stable enough to offer bandwidth up to 10G or 10GE with SLA guaranteed. 

The TEA-2 terrestrial cable system is an upgraded cable system of the TEA, connecting major cities in Europe and Hong Kong, Beijing, etc, via RosTelecom's state-of-the-air terrestrial cable system across Siberia and backbones of either China Unicom or China Telecom, offering customer bandwidth up to STM-64 or 10GE.

The TEA-2 cable system forms an affordable and stable Eurasia broadband internet infrastructure.

The Euro-Russia-Asia (ERA) terrestrial cable system offers the most competitive Eurasia terrestrial cable solution, in views of stability, latency and pricing.

Euro-Russia-Mongolia-Chna (ERMC)

Submarine cable systems connecting Brazil and the US

Seabras-1 submarine cable is a new 10,500 km fiber optic cable that will provide the first direct route between São Paulo and New York, and will also have a branching unit landing in Fortaleza.

Seabras-1 is a private cable constructed and operated by Seaborn Networks which will provide cross-connect access to all major carriers present in each of our  locations.

The Cable of The Americas (COTA) is a submarine cable system hooking up Boca Raton in Florida with Brazil’s Fortaleza and Santos, with six fiber pairs and a total design capacity of 64 Tbps.

The COTA consortium comprises of Google, Brazil’s Algar Telecom, Uruguay’s Antel, and Angola’s Angola Cables.

The América Móvil Submarine Cable System (AMX-1) spans 17500km, connecting 7 countires, including the United States, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, with 11 cable landing stations in Jacksonville and Miami, in the United States; Puerto Barrios in Guatemala; Barranquilla and Cartagena in Colombia; Fortaleza, Salvador de Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil; Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic; San Juan in Pureto Rico and Cancun in Mexico.

The AMX-1 cable system is wholly owned by América Móvil, S.A.B. de C.V. (“América Móvil”) and its eight subsidiaries in the landing countries. The initial investment of the AMX-1 cable system costs about US$500million.

The AMX-1 cable system was launched for service in Dec 2013.

BRUSA, a new submarine cable nearly 11,000 km in length linking Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza (Brazil) with San Juan (Puerto Rico) and Virginia Beach (USA), consists of 8 fiber pairs, with initial design capacity of 135 x 100 Gbps per fiber pair and ROADM technology. 

BRUSA is a private cable built and operated by Telefónica. It is expected to begin operations in early 2018.

Brazil-Eruope Submarine Cable Systems

Submarine cable systems connecting Brazil and Africa

The South Atlantic Cable System (SACS) is a submarine cable system connecting Sangano in Angola and Fortaleza in Brazil, the world's first submarine cable system across the South Atlantic.

The SACS cable consists of 4 fiber pairs, with an initial design capacity of 40Tb/s (100Gb/s x 100 wavelengths x 4 fiber-pairs).

The SACS is owned by Angola Cables, which is joint venture of five Angolan operators Angola Telecom (51%), Unitel (31%), MSTelcom (9%), Movicel (6%) and Startel (3%).

It is said, Telebras is a partner of Angola Cables to offer cable landing for the SACS.

Cameroon-Brazil Cable System (CBCS)

Submarine cable systems connecting Europe and Africa

The West Africa Cable System (WACS) is a 14000km submarine cable system connecting 15 countries, starting from South Africa and ending in London. The initial capacity of the WACS cable system is about 5.12 Tbit/s, with the amplification capacity up to 30Tbits/s.

MainOne Submarine Cable System

Cable Landing Station is one important component of a submarine cable system which comprises of Wet Plant and Dry Plant.

The Dry Plant of a submarine cable system is a segment between the beach manhole and the cable landing station, comprises of land cable, power feeding equipment (PFE) and submarine line terminal equipment(SLTE), etc. The Wet Plant of a submarine cable system lies between the beach manholes, consists of submarine cable, repeater/gain equalizer, branching unit. A typical schematic of a submarine cable system is shown below.

Typical Schematic for a Submarine Cable System

The PFE and the SLTE of a submarine cable system are installed at the cable landing station. In some cases, the PFE is installed at a cable landing station nearby the cable landing site, while the SLTE may be installed in another cable landing station much faraway. For example, the terminal station at Hillsboro for the SLTE of the TPE cable system is about 150 mile away from the cable landing site at Nedonna Beach.

Multiple submarine cable systems may share the same cable landing stations. The submarine cable system is connected with the terrestrial network at the cable landing station, through the so called backhaul system.

The cable landing site is usually carefully chosen to be in areas:

  • that have little marine traffic to minimise the risk of cables being damaged by ship anchors and trawler operations;
  • with gently sloping, sandy or silty sea-floors so that the cable can be buried to minimise the chance of damage;
  • without strong currents that would uncover buried cables and potentially move cables.

Multiple types of submarine cables may be used in a submarine cable system, subject to depth of the seabed where the cable lies.

Various Types of Submarine Cables

The double armored submarine cable is used at the shore-end, terminated at the beach manhole at the cable landing site, and is interconnected with much lighter land cable going onward to the cable landing station.

Structure of Land Cable

Structure of Single Armored Submarine Cable

In most of the jurisdictions worldwide, the cable landing license is required to land a submarine cable.

There are now 7 submarine cable landing stations in China.

China Telecom owns three cable landing stations, including

China Unicom owns four cable landing stations, including:

Currently, there are three major areas for landing of submarine cables in Hong Kong, with cable landing stations at:

Japan is the Hub for trans-Pacific and intra-Asia submarine networks, most of the trans-pacific submarine cable systems landing in Japan. There are more submarine cable landing stations in Japan than any other Asian countries, including Ajigaura, Chikura, Emi, Kita Ibaraki, Maruyama, Okinawa, Shin-Maruyama, Toyohashi and Wada cable landing stations. 

There are now four active cable landing stations in Korea, namely the Pusan Cable Landing Station, the Keoje Cable Landing Station, the C2C Pusan Cable Landing Station and the Taean Cable Landing Station, connecting APCN, APCN-2, C2C, China-US CN, EAC, FNAL/RNAL, FLAG FEA, RJCN, R-J-K and TPE submarine cable systems.

According to the Guidelines on Deployment of Submarine Cables into Singpaore issued by the Info-communications Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) in August 2010, all new submarine cable systems can only be deployed to three designated landing sites in Singapore, namely the Changi North landing site, the Tanah Merah landing site, and the Tuas landing site, and each landing site is available on a first-come-first-served basis.

There are now 9 submarine cables landing in Taiwan, including APCN, APCN-2, C2C, China-US CN, EAC, FLAG FEA, FNAL/FNAL, SMW3 and TPE, with cable landing stations at Tanshui, Pali, Toucheng and Fangshan.

The Philippines takes an important position in the business process outsourcing (BPO) industry worldwide. Submarine networks serve as critical components to the BPO industry, providing reliable and diverse links between the Philippines and the rest of the world.

There are now seven submarine cable systems landing in the Philippines, including APCN, APCN-2, C2C, EAC, TGN-IA, AAG and Guam-Philippines, distributed in five cable landing stations in BatangasBallesterosCapepisaLa Union and Nasugbu.

There are now 9 international submarine cables landing in Malaysia, including APCN, APCN-2, AAG, SMW3, SMW4, FEA, and several cables between Malaysia and Indonesia such as Batam-Dumai-Melaka (BDM) Cable System, Dumai Malaka Cable System (DMCS) and Batam-Rengit Cable System (BRCS).

There are now five submarine cable systems landing in Vietnam, including AAG (Asia-America Gateway), TGN-IA (TGN Intra-Asia Cable System) and TVH (Tailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong) landing at Vung Tau Cable Landing StationC2C and SEA-ME-WE 3 cables landing at Danang Cable Landing Station.

There are now 10 submarine cable landing stations in India, with four in Mumbaithree in Chennai, and each in Cochin,Tuticorin and  Digha,

Currently, international submarine cables land in Thailand via 3 submarine cable landing stations, namely the Sri Racha Cable Landing Station, the Petchaburi Cable Landing Station, and the Songkhla Cable Landing Station.

The undergoing intra-Asia submarine cable system, South-east Asia Japan Cable (SJC) is going to land at the Songkhla Cable Landing Station.

The SEA-ME-WE 3 (SMW3) is currently the only international submarine cable system reaching Myanmar, landing at the Pyapon Cable Landing Station in Myanmar.

Cable Landing Stations in Brunei

There are two cable landing stations in Sri Lanka, the Mount Lavinia Cable Landing Stations for SMW3 and BLCS cable systems, and the Colombo Cable Landing Station for FALCON, SEA-ME-WE-4,SLT-Dhiraagu and SAFE cable systems.

The SEA-ME-WE-4 (SMW4) submarine cable system is currently the sole international optic fiber submarine cable landing in Bangladesh, with a cable landing station at Cox's Bazaar, built and owned by Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company (BSCCL) .

Since the landing of SMW4, the Internet infrastructure in Bangladesh has been significantly improved. The SMW4 is now the main link for the international internet gateway in Bangladesh, and is the truly and sole submarine internet cable in Bangladesh.

Mango, the only private sector international internet gateway (IIG) operator of Bangladesh, is connected to the global internet using the SEA-ME-WE 4 submarine cable system.  Mango won its license through an open auction from Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) on February 25, 2008.

The Bangladesh Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (BTRC) issued draft licensing guidelines for two new submarine cable licences in early 2010. Each licensee should build a separate landing station within the general area of Khula-Patuakhali-Barisal-Chittagong, and should provide access, co-location and landing facilities to other submarine cable licensees, as and when required by the BTRC.

Besides the international submarine communication cable connecting Bangladesh, there are three terrestrial cables on India-Bangladesh boarders in Jessore, Sylhet-Comilla and Kurigram which may also bring Bangladesh into the global communication network.

 

Cable landing stations in the West Coast of the U.S. link most of the trans-pacific cables westward to Asia, Oceania, Hawaii, Guam, also connect with the submarine cables reaching Mexico and South America, as well as northward cables connecting Canada and the State of Alaska.

In the U.S., cables and cable landings are under the jurisdiction of the Federal Communications Commission and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 USC 4321-4327]). The U.S. Department of State also has a role. Cable Landing License is required to land a submarine cable in the U.S..

Guam is a natural hub and communication gateway for trans-Pacific telecommunications. On this 212-square-mile island, Guam arguably has one of the most extensive telecom infrastructures in the Asia Pacific region and most areas throughout the United States. There are currently 10 separate submarine cables with landing points in Guam, connecting Asia and Australia with the United States, via three cable landing stations in Guam -- Tumon Bay, Piti and Tanguisson -- allowing local interconnections to alternate routes and cable diversity. The cables landing in Guam include CUCN, AAG, AJC and Guam-Philippine at Tanguisson station, TPC-5, AJC and Pacrim West at Tumon Bay station, TGN-Pacific, TGN-IA and PPC-1 at Piti station.

There are 7 major transpacific submarine cables landing in Hawaii, distributed at 5 cable landing stations in Hawaii island, including

  • two cable landing stations in Kawaihae  of the Big Island, i.e., the Spencer Beach Cable Landing Station for the Honotua cable system and the other Spencer Beach Cable Landing Station for the Southern Cross cable system, and
  • three cable landing stations in Hanolulu island, i.e., the Kahe Point Cable Landing Station for the Southern Cross, the Makaha Cable Landing Station for the Japan-US CN, and the Keawaula Cable Landing Station for  TPC-5, Telstra Endeavour, AAG and ASH (American Samoa Hawaii Cable)

 


Because of the increasing importance of submarine cables, the Australian Government introduced legislation designed to protect the most critical submarine cables—the Telecommunications and Other Legislation Amendment (Protection of Submarine Cables and Other Measures) Act 2005. The legislation allows the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) to declare submarine cable protection zones in Australian waters over submarine cables of national significance. The ACMA has declared three submarine cable protection zones:

  • the Perth Submarine Cable Protection Zone stretching from City Beach, near Perth, to 51 nautical miles offshore (that is, to a water depth of 2000 metres) for the protection of the SEA-ME-WE 3 (SWM3).
  • the Northern Sydney Submarine Cable Protection Zone extending from Narrabeen beach to 40 nautical miles off shore covering northern branches of the Australia Japan Cable and Southern Cross cable, including the area between these two cables; and
  • the Southern Sydney Submarine Cable Protection Zone extending from Tamarama and Clovelly beaches and extending 30 nautical miles off shore covering the southern branches of the Australia Japan Cable and Southern Cross cables, including the area between these two cables.

American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of the sovereign state of Samoa (formerly known as Western Samoa).  The 2000 census showed a total population of 57,291 people. The total land area is 76.1 square miles (197.1 km2). American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the United States.

There is one international fiber optic cable between American Samoa, Samoa and Hawaii, the ASH/SAS Cable,  and connects America Samoa to the existing global telecommunications infrastructure networks.

The ASH/SAS Cable lands at the Pago Pago Cable Landing Station.

Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa, formerly known as Western Samoa and German Samoa, is a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. It became independent from New Zealand in 1962. The two main islands of Samoa are Upolu and one of the biggest islands in Polynesia, Savai'i. The capital city, Apia, and Faleolo International Airport are situated on the island of Upolu.

Samoa is connected into the global submarine networks with the Samoa American Samoa Cable (SAS Cable), and onward connectivity with the American Samoa Hawaii Cable (ASH Cable).

The ASH/SAS Cable lands at the Apia Cable Landing Station.

French Polynesia is an overseas collectivity or constituent country of the French Republic. It is made up of several groups of Polynesian islands, the most famous island being Tahiti in the Society Islands group, which is also the most populous island and the seat of the capital of the territory (Papeete).

There are several cable landing stations in French Polynesia, including Vaitape, Uturoa, Huahine, Moorea and Papenoo cable landing stations.

The Papenoo Cable Landing Station in Tahiti island is the cable landing station for the Honotua submarine cable connecting French Polynesia and Hawaii, with onward connectivity to link French Polynesia with global submarine networks.

There are three cable landing stations in New Zealand, namely the Whenuapai Cable Landing Station, the Takapuna Cable Landing Station and the Auckland Cable Landing Station

It is currently only one submarine cable connecting New Zealand, i.e., the Southern Cross Cable Network which land at Whenuapai Cable Landing Station on the West Coast of New Zealand and the Takapuna Cable Landing Station on the East Coast of New Zealand.

The second international submarine cable system to link New Zealand is underway, i.e. the Pacific Fibre Cable System which is going to land in Auckland.

A Chinese consortium (China Telecom and Huawei Marine) announced in September 2011 to build a new trans-tasman submarine cable linking New Zealand and Australia, which will be the third submarine cable system landing in New Zealand.  

 

It is currently one international submarine cable linking Papua New Guinea, i.e., the PPC-1 cable landing at the Madang Cable Landing Station in Papua New Guinea.

The Southern Cross Cable Network is currently the only one international submarine cable landing in Fiji, and lands at the Suva Cable Landing Station in Viti Levu Island of Fiji.

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