Trans-Pacific

  • The Asia-America Gateway(AAG) is a 20,000km and the first submarine cable system linking South East Asia directly with the USA, provides connectivity between Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Hong Kong SAR, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii and the US West Coast .

    The AAG consists of two fiber pairs from Hong Kong to Hawaii via the Philippines and Guam, three fiber pairs from Hong Kong to Singapore with branching units to Vietnam, Brunei, Malaysia and Thailand, and three fiber pairs from Hawaii to the US west coast.

    The AAG cable system was intially designed with 96*10Gbps DWDM technology, with a minimum system capacity of 1.92 Tbps.

    The AAG cable system was supplied by ASN and NEC, with a total cost of about US$560 million, completed and ready for service on November 10, 2009.

    In 2011, the AAG cable system was upgraded with 40Gbps DWDM technology and increased system capacity up to 5.2 Tbps. And it was further upgraded with 100Gbps DWDM technology in 2014.

    For more information, please refer to the articles about AAG cable system and its network parameters.

     

    AAG cable route

  • The America Samoa Hawaii Cable (ASH Cable) is the international fiber optic cable between American Samoa, Samoa and Hawaii and connects Samoa to the existing global telecommunications infrastructure networks.

    The ASH Cable comprises of two cables installed between Samoa, American Samoa and Hawaii.

    In addition, the Samoa-American Samoa Cable (SAS Cable) will provide inter-island communication, as well as enabling users in Samoa to access the ASH cable capacity and connect to the global networks.

    While ASH Cable and SAS Cable are much smaller than the gargantuan systems across the North Pacific, they will provide more than 40 times the capacity currently in use in both island groups combined.

    The ASH cable project is significantly different from the traditional submarine cable provisioning. The Samoan islands are in a fortunate position to re-utilize the former PACRIM East cable between Hawaii and Auckland that runs along the seabed, about 100 miles east of Pago Pago in the island of America Samoa.

    The PACRIM East cable was the original fibre optic cable across the Pacific, laid in the 1990’s. It had large capacity then but by today’s standards its capacity is insufficient to effectively service the needs of New Zealand and Australia. As such, larger capacity cables – Southern Cross and Telstra Australia’s Sydney-Hawaii cables with capacities of Terabits – service their needs.

    The project involves recovering the PACRIM East cable from the seabed south east of American Samoa, cutting it and laying it into American Samoa at Pago Pago. During the pick-up process, additional cable will be recovered for re-laying between Pago Pago and Apia, Samoa.

    Major cost saving has been achieved in relaying the fibre cable as only a small section of the cable is being recovered and re-laid.

    The ASH/SAS Cable consists of three cable landing stations, i.e., the Keawaula Cable Landing Station in Hawaii, the Pago Pago  Cable Landing Station in American Samoa, and the Apia Cable Landing Station in Samoa. The ASH/SAS Cable was ready for service on 28 May 2009.

  • The Bifrost Cable System is a trans-pacific cable system connecting Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, the United State (Guam, Gorover Beach, Winema) and Mexico, with its main trunk linking Singapore to the United States over 16,460 km via Indonesia through the Java Sea and Celebes Sea, and total cable length of 19,900km inclusive of its branches.

    Bifrost consortium comprises Meta (Facebook), PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia International (Telin), Keppel Telecommunications & Transportation Limited (Keppel T&T) and Amazon (through its subisidiary AMCS LLC).

    Keppel T&T, through its wholly owned subsidiary Keppel Midgard Holdings Pte. Ltd. (KMH), participates in the Bifrost consortium as its first direct investment in a subsea cable system, and has acquired a Facilities-Based Operator (FBO) licence issued by the Infocomm Media Development Authority of Singapore (IMDA). The FBO licence allows KMH to own, maintain and operate telecoms infrastructure in Singapore and to provide telecommunications services in connection with the Bifrost cable system. KMH's share of the total project costs as a joint build partner is approximately US$350million (or approximately S$467 million), according to Keppel's announcement.

    The whole initial cost of the Bifrost cable system is expected to be approximately US$760million, assumed by SubmarineNetworks.com.

    KMH has sold Converge ICT Solutions Inc. (Converge) one fiber pair on the main trunk of the Bifrost cable system on IRU-basis for over US$100 million (around PhP 5 billion). Converge acts as the landing partner to land the Bifrost cable system in Davao, the Philippines, and is granted an IRU on the entire Davao branch.

    The Bifrost cable system is supplied by Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN), expected to be completed in Q2, 2024. 

    Segments and Ownership

    The Bifrost cable system is designed with 12 fiber-pair SDM technology and 10.4Tbps/FP, with the following segments

    • Main trunk between Tuas, Singapore, Guam (Alupang) and Grover Beach, USA: 16,460km,12 FPs, 6.13 fiber pairs owned by Meta, 5.52 fiber pairs by Keppel and 0.35 fiber pairs by Telin. 
    • Winema branch: 1,526km, 6FPs, soly owned by Keppel. 
    • Rosarito branch: 1,127km, 6FPs, soly owned by Meta. 
    • Davao branch: 184km, 10FPs,  soly owned by Keppel. 
    • Manado branch: 311km, 6FPs,  2 fiber pairs owned by each of Meta, Keppel and Telin.
    • Jakarta branch: 280km, 12FPs,  soly owned by Telin.
    • Balikpapan branch (stub-BU).

    Amazon's roles

    As a member of the Biforst consortium, Amazon doesn't have a direct fiber pair ownership (while do a shadow investment on certain Bifrost consortium member), but it controls a cable landing station in Winerma, Oregon, owned by Wave Business Solutions, LLC (d/b/a Astound Business Solutions) (Astound), formerly known as CoastCom in some Oregon coastal areas.

    Astound operates the Pacific City cable landing station, owned by Tillamook Lightwave, and a ring backhaul network(Ring I, two 864 cores, low-loss, single-mode fiber cables) linking the undersea cable landing stations in Pacific City to six nearby data centers.

    In 2020, Astound built the Hillsboro Data Center Ring II (a 3,456-strand fiber network), together with it Ring I, connecting up to 14 data centers and 7 transpacific submarine cable systems.

    In March 2023, Astound announced a project to build a new 100-mile underground fiber route along Highway 6. The project will run from Tillamook to Hillsboro and enable fiber-based Internet service along the highway which currently has limited connectivity. This project is partially funded by AWS’ investment in the Bifrost submarine cable system. Once complete, a portion of the 100-mile fiber route will belong to Tillamook Lightwave, an inter-governmental agency comprised of the Tillamook People’s Utility District, Tillamook County and the Port of Tillamook Bay.

    Cable Landing Stations

    • Grover Beach, California: PC Landing Corp. will own and Edge USA will control an existing cable landing station;
    • Alupang, Guam: a new cable landing station owned by Teleguam Holdings LLC dba GTA (GTA) and controlled by Meta
    • Tuas, Singapore: a data center and cable landing station owned by Keppel
    • Winema, Oregon: a new cable landing station owned by Wave Business Solutions, LLC (d/b/a Astound Business Solutions) (Astound) and controlled by Amazon
    • Rosarito, Mexico: a new cable landing station owned by IP Matrix BMH, S.A. de C.V. and controlled by Meta
    • Davao, Philippines: a new cable landing station owned by Converge Information & Communications Technology Solutions, Inc. (Converge) and controlled by Keppel
    • Manado, Indonesia: an existing cable landing station owned by PT Telkom Indonesia (Persero), Tbk. (Telkom Indonesia) and controlled by Telin
    • Jakarta, Indonesia: a new cable landing station owned and controlled by Telin.
    Bifrost Cable Route
    Bifrost Cable Route

     

  • The Bay to Bay Express Cable System ("BtoBE") is a 15,400 km trans-pacific optical fiber submarine cable system connecting Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong and the US.

    Landing Stations:

    • Grover Beach, California;
    • Changi, Singapore;
    • Chung Hom Kok, Hong Kong SAR; and
    • Cherating, Malaysia.

    Segments:

    • Segment A: Grover Beach-BU1 off Hong Kong. It will have a total length of 12,182 kilometers and consist of six fiber
    • pairs.
    • Segment B: BU1-Changi, Singapore. It will have a total length of 2,236 kilometers and consist of five fiber pairs.
    • Segment C: BU1-Chung Hom Kok, Hong Kong. It will have a total length of 612 kilometers and consist of nine fiber pairs.
    • Segment D: BU2-Cherating, Malaysia. It will have a total length of 363 kilometers and consist of four fiber pairs.

    Design Capacity

    • California - Hong Kong:90 waves x 200 Gbps (or equivalent) per fiber pair.
    • California - Singapore:  80 waves x 200 Gbps (or equivalent) per fiber pair.
    • California - Malaysia: 80 waves x 200 Gbps (or equivalent) per fiber pair.

    The BtoBE consortium composes of China Mobile International, Facebook ( by its wholly-owned, direct subsidiary Edge USA) and Amazon (by its wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary Vadata).

    The BtoBE cable system was expected to be ready for service by the fourth quarter of 2020, supplied by NEC.

    In light of the U.S. policy blocking direct connections between the United States and Hong Kong, the BtoBE consortium withdrew from the FCC the application for cable landing license on September 10, 2020. 

    The Bay to Bay Express (“BtoBE”) cable system has been reconfigured as the CAP-1 cable system, connecting the United States and the Philippines.

    BtoBE Cable Route

  • The Bulikula submarine cable connects Guam with Fiji.

    Bulikula is the Fijian word for “golden cowrie,” a rare shell found in the Pacific Ocean often worn by local chieftains as a badge of rank.

    The Bulikula submarine cable system is part of Google's Central Pacific Connect initiative which includes Bulikula and Halaihai linking Guam and French Polynesia.

    Google's Central Pacific Connect initiative is originated from the Central Pacific Cable project, which demonstrates a strategic initiative of the United States to connect various Pacific islands and boost the U.S.’s interests in the Pacific region, where it competes for influence with China.

    Google partners with Telstra, APTelecom, and Amalgamated Telecom Holdings (ATH) on the Bulikula submarine cable system and the Central Pacific Connect initiative. 

    Amalgamated Telecom Holdings Limited (ATH) was incorporated as a public company in March 1998, as a vehicle through which the Fiji government's investments in the telecommunications sector was consolidated for the purpose of privatisation under its public sector reform programme. 

    Telstra owns and operates a fibre pair on the core trunk on the Bulikula cable connecting Guam and Fiji. 

    Central Pacific Connect Initiative
    Central Pacific Connect Initiative, Image courtesy: Google

     

  • The CAP-1 cable system is a 12,000 kilometers submarine cable system connecting California, USA and Pagudpud, Philippines.

    The CAP-1 cable system will land at: 

    The CAP-1 cable system consists of six fiber pairs and a single trunk of 12,000km, with a design capacity of 90 waves x 200 Gbps (or equivalent) per fiber pair using current technology, with an aggregate design capacity of 108 Tbps, to be supplied by NEC.

    The CAP-1 cable system is de facto reconfigured BtoBE cable system. Due to geopoliticial tensions and US concerns on national security, the BtoBE consortium withdrew the application for cable landing license in the United States in September 2020. Meanwhile, the same applicants including Facebook, Amazon and China Mobile filed with the FCC a new application to land and operate the CAP-1 cable system connecting the United States and the Philippines. China Mobile would own three out of the six fiber pairs of the system, Facebook two and half fiber pairs, and Amazon half fiber pair. 

    On August 9, 2021, Facebook and Amazon filed with the FCC an amended application, removing China Mobile International Limited (China Mobile) as an applicant for the FCC cable landing license of the CAP-1 cable system. Pursuant to an agreement executed on August 8, 2021, China Mobile agreed to transfer to Facebook and Amazon all rights, title, and interests in relation to the facilities between the Grover Beach, California landing point and the reconfiguration demarcation point off the coast of the Philippines. And Facebook and Amazon also agreed to assume all related obligations and liabilities. As a result, Facebook and Amazon would own five fiber pairs (83.3333%) and one fiber pair (16.6667%) out of the total six fiber pairs respectively.

    As reveiwed and investigated by the US Team Telecom, China Mobile International was deemed to stay in the CAP-1 cable system.

    On April 19, 2022, Facebook and Amazon notified the FCC of the withdrawal of the above amended application, and requested that the FCC dismiss the application without prejudice to any future filings for the same or similar.

     

     

    CAP-1 Cable Route
    CAP-1 Cable Route
  • Central Pacific Cable is a 15,900-kilometer subsea cable which plans to connect American Samoa with Guam - two U.S. territories, and extend to up to 12 more Pacific islands, including Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Wallis and Futuna.

    The Central Pacific Cable project demonstrates a strategic initiative of the United States, which aims to connect various Pacific islands and seeks to boost the U.S.’s interests in the Pacific region, where it competes for influence with China.

    The U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) has awarded a grant to Tuvalu Telecom Corporation (TTC) for a feasibility study to support the development of the Central Pacific Cable.

    TTC has selected Florida-based APTelecom LLC to conduct the feasibility study.

    In January 2024, Google announced plans for the Central Pacific Connect initiative, to build two new intra-Pacific cables — Bulikula and Halaihai—connecting Guam with Fuji and French Polynesia respectively. Google collaborates with Amalgamated Telecom Holdings (ATH) of Fiji, APTelecom, and Telstra on the Central Pacific Connect initiative.

  • China-US CN(China-US Cable Network or CUCN) is the first submarine cable system with direct cable routes linking the U.S. and China, reaching several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. This trans-pacific subsea optical fiber cable system was planned in 1997 and put into service in early 2000, constructed by a consortium including AT&T, China Telecom, NTT, KT, CHT etc.. China-US CNsubsea cable consists of four optical fiber pairs in its northern trans-pacific trunk between Chongming cable landing station and Bandon cable landing station, and southern trans-pacific trunk between Shantou cable landing station and San Lius Obispo cable landing station, as well as the western and eastern trunks linking Shantou- Chongming, and Bandon-San Lius Obispo respectively, with branches to Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Guam. China-US CNwas designed with 8x2.488 Gbps (STM-16) SDH over DWDM, a total of 80 Gbps trans-pacific system capacity with SDH self-healing ring protection. China-US CNwas the largest trans-pacific subsea cable system as of its commencement of service.

    China-US CN was early retired in December 2016.

  • Echo subsea cable system connnects Eureka in California, Guam, Indonesia and Singapore, and other locations.

    Echo’s architecture is designed for maximum resilience, with unique Trans Pacific route to Southeast Asia avoiding crowded, traditional paths to the north.

    Echo subsea cable system is the first-ever subsea cable to directly connect the U.S. to Singapore with direct fiber pairs over an express route.

    The main trunk of the Echo cable system spans 16206km from Singapore to Eureka, California, the United States, with 12 fiber pairs and a design capacity of 12 Tbps per fiber pair using current technology for a total system capacity of 144Tbps.

    Google and Facebook are joint builders of the Echo cable system. Indonesian telecommunications firm XL Axiata acts as the landing party in Indonesia. Google through its subsidiary Google Singapore Pte Ltd is the landing party in Singapore. Facebook through its subsidiary Edge USA is landing party in the United States for California and Guam landings. 

    Echo subsea cable system is supplied by NEC.

    Echo subsea cable system is expected to be ready for service in 2023. 

    According to earlier news on the Palau Cable 2, the Echo subsea cable system will have a branch to Palau Island. The Palau Cable 2 is in fact the Echo Palau Branch.

    In January 2024, Trans Pacific Networks(TPN) announced to become a party for the Echo cable system. TPN was in fact the initial party of the Echo project before Google and Meta stepped in the project which was then called TPN project. TPN has selected Telstra International as sales partner, landing partner in Singapore, and NOC service provider. TPN owns 4 fiber pairs on the Echo cable system.

    Echo Cable Route
    Echo Cable Route

     

  • The East Micronesia Cable System (EMCS) is a 2,250km submarine cable system connecting four islands amongst the Federated States of Micronesia (Pohnpei and Kosrae), Kiribati (Tarawa) and Nauru.

    The EMCS is the first submarine cable connection for the islands of Tarawa (Kiribati), Nauru and the state of Kosrae (FSM).

    The East Micronesia Cable System:

    • Comprises a main trunk cable connecting Tarawa to Pohnpei with branches to Nauru and Kosrae .

    • Provides optical transmission through a Single Fibre Pair with Spectrum Sharing between the countries, and an initial provisioned channel capacity of 100Gbps per country. (The system will be capable of 10 Tbps.)

    • Connects into the existing Chuuk-Pohnpei Cable System, eliminating the need for an additional landing site in Pohnpei and adding resilience to the Chuuk-Pohnpei Cable System.

    • lands at the existing HANTRU-1 cable landing point located in Pohnpei, FSM, with onward connectivity to Guam and the rest of the world.
    East Micronesia Cable System (EMCS)
    East Micronesia Cable System (EMCS), Image courtesy: NEC
    East Micronesia Cable System (EMCS) Connectivity
    East Micronesia Cable System (EMCS) Technical Details, Image courtesy:East Micronesia Cable System

     

    The East Micronesia Cable System (EMCS) is jointly owned and operated by FSM Telecommunications Cable Corporation (FSMTCC), based in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), BwebwerikiNet Limited (BNL) of the Republic of Kiribati, and Nauru Fibre Cable Corporation (NFCC) of the Republic of Nauru.

    The East Micronesia Cable System (EMCS) is supplied by NEC.

    The EMCS project costs approximately US$95 million (AU$135 million equivalent), 100% grant funded by the Governments of Australia, Japan and the United States.

    The Governments of the Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, and Nauru (the EMC Countries) have accepted funding support from the Governments of Australia, Japan and the United States (the Development Partners) to deliver the East Micronesia Cable project. The Development Partners will collaborate with the EMC Countries to ensure a fit-for-purpose submarine cable provides essential and improved telecommunications connectivity.

    Australia, via the Australian Infrastructure Financing Facility for the Pacific (AIFFP), is taking the lead role in funding and coordination arrangements. The AIFFP has contracted nem Australasia Pty Ltd as the Project Coordination Unit to support the EMC Countries facilitate management of the overall project. The Project Coordination Unit comprises a team of specialists covering technical, legal, administrative, and environmental/social requirements of the East Micronesia Cable project. The AIFFP has released the approvement for the EMCS project.

    The EMCS project was originally led by the World Bank in associate with the Asian Development Bank. The Governments of FSM and Kiribati were granted fund from the World Bank(World Bank Project Number P130592), and the Nauru Government was granted fund from the ADB (Asian Development Bank Grant Number D004-FM). Chinese HMN Technologies (HMN Tech) was in a strong position to win a bid for the $72.6 million EMCS project, offered at more than 20% below rivals including Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN) and NEC. But the project reached a stalemate due to security concerns raised within the island nations over HMN Tech's bid. The project's planned connection to a sensitive cable leading to Guam, a U.S. territory with substantial military assets, heightened those security concerns. During the bidding process in 2020, the Government of the United States detailed its concerns in a diplomatic note sent to FSM, which has military defence arrangements with the United States under a decades-old agreement. The note said Chinese firms posed a security threat. So, the World Bank-led project declined to award a contract to HMN Tech to lay sensitive undersea communications cables after Pacific island governments heeded U.S. warnings that participation of a Chinese company posed a security threat. Finally, the World Bank-led project sank after U.S. warns against Chinese bid

    In December 2021, the Governments of Australia, Japan, the United States, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Kiribati, and the Republic of Nauru reached a six-country joint statement to improve internet connectivity in the three Pacific nations by providing funding to build the EMCS project, which builds on the strong foundations of trilateral collaboration between Australia, Japan, and the United States in the Indo-Pacific. Later in July 2022, a six-country Memorandum of Understanding was signing for the EMCS project. 

    In June 2023, Australia, Japan and the United States announced final agreement to fund the $95 million EMCS undersea cable project, supplied by Japanese NEC.

    In an announcement in September 2023, the United States announced to provide an additional $2.5 million to continue U.S. support for the East Micronesia Cable in partnership with Australia and Japan, on top of its prior $20 million commitment.

  • FASTER is a 11629 km trans-pacific cable system, landing at Chikura and Shima in Japan, Tanshui in Taiwan and Bandon in the US,  and seamlessly connecting many neighboring cable systems to extend the capacity beyond Japan to other Asian locations, and reaching major hubs on the US West Coast covering the Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland and Seattle areas.

    FASTER consists of 6-fiber-pair cable, designed with 100Gbps x 100 DWDM technologies and an initial design capacity of 60Tbps.

    The FASTER consortium is comprised of China Mobile International, China Telecom Global, Global Transit (Time dotCom), Google, KDDI and SingTel.

    The total investment for the FASTER cable system is estimated to be approximately USD $300 million, supplied by NEC.

    FASTER cable system has been ready-for-service during as of June 30, 2016.

  • Google announced plans for the Central Pacific Connect initiative, to build two new intra-Pacific cables — Bulikula and Halaihai —connecting Guam with Fuji and French Polynesia respectively. Google will collaborate Amalgamated Telecom Holdings (ATH) of Fiji, APTelecom, and Telstra on the Central Pacific Connect initiative to increase digital connectivity in the region.

  • The Guam-Philippines Cable System (G-P Cable System) consists of two optical fiber pairs between the Batangas Cable Landing Station in the Philippines and the Tanguisson Cable Landing Station in Guam. The Guam-Philippines Cable System was ready for service in March 1999, with a design capacity of 40 Gbps (2x8x2.5 Gbps).

  • The H2 submairne cable system will be the first direct subsea cable between Sydney and Hong Kong (9,200km), with a branch to Los Angeles (12,500km) providing optimal diversity with existing Hawaiki cable.

    The H2 cable system will provide the lowest latency from Australia across the Pacific Ocean, with the Sydney to Hong Kong branch carrying 15 Tbps per fibre pair and the Sydney to Los Angeles branch carrying more than 12.9 Tbps per fibre pair, and will follow a diverse route to the north of New Caledonia.

    H2 cable seems a sister-cable of Hawaiki Cable. According to Linkedin, H2 Cable Pte. Ltd. is a Singapore-based company.  H2 CEO Georges Krebs still takes the role of Vise President Network and Technology at Hawaiki Cable Limited, while Mr. Rémi Galasso, the Founder and CEO at Hawaiki Cable Limited is the Chairman at H2 Cable.

    H2 Cable awarded SubCom the contract to supply, design and install H2 submarine cable system.

    H2 Cable Route
    H2 Cable Route
  • The Halaihai submarine cable connects Guam with French Polynesia.

    Halaihai is named after a type of vine that grows on beaches. The word is often used in the Chamorro expression, “tilifón halaihai,” which refers to information spread from person to person, whether face-to-face, by phone, or over the internet.

    The Halaihai submarine cable system is part of Google's Central Pacific Connect initiative which includes Halaihai and Bulikula linking Guam with Fiji.

    Google's Central Pacific Connect initiative is originated from the Central Pacific Cable project, which demonstrates a strategic initiative of the United States to connect various Pacific islands and boost the U.S.’s interests in the Pacific region, where it competes for influence with China.

    Google partners with Telstra, APTelecom, and Amalgamated Telecom Holdings (ATH) on the Central Pacific Connect initiative. 

     

    Central Pacific Connect Initiative
    Central Pacific Connect Initiative, Image courtesy: Google

     

  • Hawaiki Cable spans 15,000 km, linking Australia, New Zealand, American Samoa, Pacific Island, Hawaii and Oregon, on the U.S. West Coast.

    The Hawaiki Cable System has a initial design capacity of 30Tbps on its trans-pacific route offers, offer the following connecctions: 

    • Australia to Hawaii, 2 fiber pairs, 20Tbps
    • New Zealand to Hawaii, 1 fiber pair, 10 Tbps
    • Hawaii to Hillsboro, 3 fiber pairs, 30 Tbps
    • Australia to New Zealand, 1 fiber, 12 Tbps
    • Branching Unit to America Somoa, 2 fiber pairs, 100-200Gbps
    • Branching Unit to New Caledonia (Tomoo Cable), 2 fiber pair, up to 2Tbps per fiber pair.

    The main trunk of Hawaiki cable system is 100% owned and constructed by Hawaiki Submarine Cable LP (HSC LP), headquartered in Auckland, New Zealand. The total investment in Hawaiki Cable is approximately US$300 million (NZD 445m).

    HSC LP and its affiliates owns and/or controls the cable landing stations ("CLS") in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii and Oregon, as follows:

    • Australia: CLS in Sydney is colocated at Equinix SY4.
    • New Zealand: HSC LP builds and owns a new CLS in  Mangawhai Heads.
    • Hawaii: HSC USA builds and owns a new CLS in Kapolei, with DRFortress acting as landing party in Hawaii.
    • Oregon: CLS in Pacific City is leased from Tillamook Lightwave, who owns the CLS. ACS Cable Systems, LLC operates the CLS in Oregon pursuant to an agreement with HSC USA. The SLTE of Hawaiki cable system is terminated at Flexential's Brookwood data center in Hillsboro.

    American Samoa Telecommunications Authority ("ASTCA"), the government-owned incumbent local exchange carrier in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa, owns, constructs and operates the branch to American Samoa and corresponding landing station.

    Research and Educational Advanced Network New Zealand (Reannz), owned by Government of New Zealand, was the first anchor customer of Hawaiki Cable. As of July 2014, Government has entered into the anchor tenancy contract with Hawaiki Cable, valued $65million. The total cost of the tenancy includes an initial contribution of $15 million and annual fees over the 25-year period. The Government has provided the $15 million contribution from an appropriation set aside for purchasing an anchor tenancy on a new transtasman and trans-Pacific submarine cable. Reannz will meet the annual fees out of its existing revenues. 

    In October 2016, Amazon AWS purchased capacity in the Hawaiki cable system,  making it AWS' first investment in an international submarine cable system.

    The Hawaiki submarine cable system was ready for service on Jul. 20, 2018.

    In September 2018, Australia-based Palisade Investment Partners acquired 30% interest in HSC LP and obtained de facto control of HSC LP and the Hawaiki Cable System.

    In June 2019, Hawaiki Cable opened new subsea route to the US with direct access to Los Angeles, based on the most easterly segment of the SEA-US cable.

    In December 2019, Hawaiki Cable announced to add a branch to New Caledonia, named ‘Tomoo Cable’, with the Société Calédonienne de Connectivité Internationale (SCCI) as the landing party in New Caledonia.

    In July 2021, BW Group Limited, through its affiliate company BW Digital Pte. Ltd., acquired 100% shares of HSC LP and the Hawaiki Cable System. The acquisition was subject to applicable regulatory filings and approvals and was completed in May 2022. Local press reports indicate that the sale price of the transaction, from the Palisade-led consortium, to BW Group, was appoximately US$350m.

     

    Hawaiki Cable Route

  • Hawaiki Nui is a 22,000km submarine cable connecting New Zealand, Australia, Indonesia, Singpaore and the United States.

    Hawaiki Nui subsea cable project was launched by Hawaiki Submarine Cable Limited Partnership (Hawaiki) in November 2021. Hawaiki has selected PT Mora Telematika Indonesia (Moratelindo) as its strategic partner for Indonesia. Moratelindo will serve as the Indonesian landing party, acquire all necessary permits and authorisations in Indonesia for the project, and provide local terrestrial infrastructures for landing the subsea cable in Indonesia.

    Hawaiki Nui cable system features the latest spatial division multiplexing (SDM) technology, with a design capacity of 240Tbps.

    Hawaiki Nui cable system will provide end-to-end connectivity between the three main hubs of the Pacific region: Singapore, Sydney and Los Angeles. There are also landing planned in Jakarta and Batam, Indonesia.

    In Australia, Hawaiki Nui will link Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Darwin, while providing them with direct access to Singapore and Los Angeles.

    In New Zealand, Hawaiki Nui will be the first international cable to land in the South Island of New Zealand, linking Christchurch, Dunedin and Invercargill directly to Australia via a new and fully diverse subsea route.

    In addition, two branches will be built to connect Oahu and Big Island in Hawaii.

    Hawaiki Nui will couple with the existing Hawaiki cable.

    Hawaiki Nui cable system is expected to be ready for service in 2027.

     

    Hawaiki Nui Cable Route
    Hawaiki Nui Cable Route, Image Credit: Hawaiki

     

  • The Hong Kong-Guam (HK-G) cable system is a 3,700 kilometer undersea cable connecting Tseung Kwan O (TKO), Hong Kong and Piti, Guam.

    RTI (through its multiple affiliates RTI Solutions, Inc, RTI HK-G PTE. LTD., and RTI Connectivity PTE. LTD) and Google (through its indirect subsidiary GU Holding Inc) are the joint builders of the HK-G cable system.

    The HK-G cable system consists of 4 fiber pairs, with design capacity of 48 Tbps (12 Tbps per fiber pair).

    Google owns approximiately two thirds of a fiber pair on the HK-G cable system via spectrum sharing technology. RTI HK-G owns all the remaining capacity and fiber pairs. 

    RTI Connectivity controls RTI HK-G’s interests in the HK-G system through its role as Asset Manager of RTI HK-G. RTI Connectivity was appointed RTI HK-G’s Asset Manager through an Asset Management Agreement by and between the two companies.

    RTI Solutions serves as the U.S. landing party and control the Guam landing arrangements for the HK-G system under a contract with the cable landing station owner, Gateway Network Connections LLC ("GNC"), a Guam limited liability company that is 51 percent owned by Asia Connectivity Elements, Inc. (“ACE”), a Guam corporation, and 49 percent owned by TeleGuam Holdings, LLC (“GTA”). 

    RTI HK-G serves as Hong Kong landing party to land the cable at NTT's TKO Cable Landing Station and data center in Hong Kong.

    NEC was awarded the supply contract for the HK-G cable system. Furthermore, HK-G cable system utilizes capital from the Fund Corporation for the Overseas Development of Japan’s ICT and Postal Services Inc. (Japan ICT Fund), along with syndicated loans from Japanese institutions including NEC Capital Solutions Limited, etc.

    In November 2020, HK-G joint builders withdrew from the FCC the application for a license to construct, land, and operate the HK-G submarine cable system connecting the United States and Hong Kong.

    HK-G Cable Map

  • The Hong Kong-America Cable System(HKA)is a 6-fiber-pair submarine cable connecting Hong Kong and the U.S. directly, with initial design capacity of 12.8 Tbps per fiber pair (for a total of 76.8 Tbps) using 100Gbps coherent DWDM technology.

    The HKA Consortium consists of Facebook, China Telecom, China Unicom, RTI Express, Tata Communication and Telstra. The HKA supply contract is awarded to ASN. The HKA Consortium and ASN officially announced the launch of HKA cable project at PTC 2018.

    The HKA cable system consists of a main trunk and three branching units:

    • Main Trunk, six fiber pairs connecting Chung Hom Kok in Hong Kong SAR and Hermosa Beach, China Telecom and China Unicom each owns one fiber pair, RTI, Tata and Telstra each owns a half fiber pair, Facebook owns two and half fiber pairs. 
    • Toucheng Branch, with six fiber pairs, two owned by Telstra and four owned by Facebook.
    • Manchester Branch, with two fiber pairs wholy owned Facebook.
    • Hermosa Beach Branch, with six fiber pairs, China Telecom and China Unicom each owns one fiber pair, RTI, Tata and Telstra each owns a half fiber pair, Facebook owns two and half fiber pairs.

    China Telecom controls the cable landing station in Chung Hom Kok (GB21), Telstra controls the cable landing station in Toucheng.

    Facebook is the landing party in the US, controls the Mancherster cable landing stations and the Hermosa Beach cable landing station (which is owned by RTI Infrastructure). Facebook will have exclusive control over the PFE located in RTI-I’s Hermosa Beach cable landing station, retain operational authority over the HKA landing facilities at Hermosa Beach and provide direction to RTI-I in all matters relating to the HKA system. The SLTEs for all of the HKA cable system’s fiber pairs will be installed at CoreSite’s One Wilshire and Wilshire Annex data centers in Los Angeles.

    The HKA consortium withdrew the application to the FCC for cable landing license in the United States in March 2021.

    HKA Cable Map

  • Honomoana is a new transpacific subsea cable connecting the United States, French Polynesia, Australia, and New Zealand, with two Australian landings in Melbourne and Sydney and a branch to Auckland, New Zealand. 

    Named after the Polynesian word for “link” (hono) and “ocean” (moana), the Honomoana cable system is part of Google's South Pacific Connect initiative which includes Honomoana and Tabua, which connects the United States and Australia to Fiji. 

    In addition to Honomoana and Tabua, the South Pacific Connect initiative will construct physically diverse cable landing stations in Fiji and French Polynesia and connect them with an interlink cable. 

    The South Pacific Connect initiative will create a ring between Australia, Fiji and French Polynesia. This ring will include pre-positioned branching units that will allow other countries and territories of Oceania to take advantage of the reliability and resilience resulting from the initiative. 

     South Pacific Connect initiative
    South Pacific Connect initiative, Image courtesy: Google