Cable Landing Station is one important component of a submarine cable system which comprises of Wet Plant and Dry Plant.
The Dry Plant of a submarine cable system is a segment between the beach manhole and the cable landing station, comprises of land cable, power feeding equipment (PFE) and submarine line terminal equipment(SLTE), etc. The Wet Plant of a submarine cable system lies between the beach manholes, consists of submarine cable, repeater/gain equalizer, branching unit. A typical schematic of a submarine cable system is shown below.
The PFE and the SLTE of a submarine cable system are installed at the cable landing station. In some cases, the PFE is installed at a cable landing station nearby the cable landing site, while the SLTE may be installed in another cable landing station much faraway. For example, the terminal station at Hillsboro for the SLTE of the TPE cable system is about 150 mile away from the cable landing site at Nedonna Beach.
Multiple submarine cable systems may share the same cable landing stations. The submarine cable system is connected with the terrestrial network at the cable landing station, through the so called backhaul system.
The cable landing site is usually carefully chosen to be in areas:
- that have little marine traffic to minimise the risk of cables being damaged by ship anchors and trawler operations;
- with gently sloping, sandy or silty sea-floors so that the cable can be buried to minimise the chance of damage;
- without strong currents that would uncover buried cables and potentially move cables.
Multiple types of submarine cables may be used in a submarine cable system, subject to depth of the seabed where the cable lies.
The double armored submarine cable is used at the shore-end, terminated at the beach manhole at the cable landing site, and is interconnected with much lighter land cable going onward to the cable landing station.
In most of the jurisdictions worldwide, the cable landing license is required to land a submarine cable.