Cable Landing Stations in China
There are now 7 submarine cable landing stations in China.
China Telecom owns three cable landing stations, including
- the Chongming Cable Landing Station for TPE, APCN-2, China-US CN and SWM3,
- the Shantou Cable Landing Station for APCN-2, China-US CN, SMW3 and undergoing SJC, and
- the Xiamen Cable Landing Station for the undergoing Xiamen-Jinmen cable connecting Jinmen Island of Taiwan and Mainland China
China Unicom owns four cable landing stations, including:
Cabe Landing Stations in HK
Currently, there are three major areas for landing of submarine cables in Hong Kong, with cable landing stations at:
Cable Landing Stations in Japan
Japan is the Hub for trans-Pacific and intra-Asia submarine networks, most of the trans-pacific submarine cable systems landing in Japan. There are more submarine cable landing stations in Japan than any other Asian countries, including Ajigaura, Chikura, Emi, Kita Ibaraki, Maruyama, Okinawa, Shin-Maruyama, Toyohashi and Wada cable landing stations.
Cable Landing Stations in Korea
There are now four active cable landing stations in Korea, namely the Pusan Cable Landing Station, the Keoje Cable Landing Station, the C2C Pusan Cable Landing Station and the Taean Cable Landing Station, connecting APCN, APCN-2, C2C, China-US CN, EAC, FNAL/RNAL, FLAG FEA, RJCN, R-J-K and TPE submarine cable systems.
Cable Landing Stations in Singapore
According to the Guidelines on Deployment of Submarine Cables into Singpaore issued by the Info-communications Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) in August 2010, all new submarine cable systems can only be deployed to three designated landing sites in Singapore, namely the Changi North landing site, the Tanah Merah landing site, and the Tuas landing site, and each landing site is available on a first-come-first-served basis.
Cable Landing Stations in Taiwan
There are now 9 submarine cables landing in Taiwan, including APCN, APCN-2, C2C, China-US CN, EAC, FLAG FEA, FNAL/FNAL, SMW3 and TPE, with cable landing stations at Tanshui, Pali, Toucheng and Fangshan.
Cable Landing Stations in the Philippines
The Philippines takes an important position in the business process outsourcing (BPO) industry worldwide. Submarine networks serve as critical components to the BPO industry, providing reliable and diverse links between the Philippines and the rest of the world.
There are now seven submarine cable systems landing in the Philippines, including APCN, APCN-2, C2C, EAC, TGN-IA, AAG and Guam-Philippines, distributed in five cable landing stations in Batangas, Ballesteros, Capepisa, La Union and Nasugbu.
Cable Landing Stations in Malaysia
There are now 9 international submarine cables landing in Malaysia, including APCN, APCN-2, AAG, SMW3, SMW4, FEA, and several cables between Malaysia and Indonesia such as Batam-Dumai-Melaka (BDM) Cable System, Dumai Malaka Cable System (DMCS) and Batam-Rengit Cable System (BRCS).
- Cable Landing Stations in Vietnam
Cable Landing Stations in India
- Tata Communications owns three cable landing stations, each in Mumbai, Chennai and Cochin.
- Reliance Globalcom owns the Versova Cable Landing Station in Mumbai.
- Bharti Airtel owns three cables landing stations, two in Chennai and one in Mumbai.
- Sify Technologies launched its cable landing station in Mumbai in January 2012.
- BSNL owns its first international submarine cable connecting India and Sri Lanka and its cable landing station in Tuticorin. The Digha Cable Landing Station in West Bengal is newly approved in May 2011 by the department of telecommunication (DoT) of India for a submarine cable project between India and South-east Asia. BNSL is expected to own the Digha Cable Landing Station.
- Cable Landing Stations in Indonesia
Cable Landing Stations in Thailand
Currently, international submarine cables land in Thailand via 3 submarine cable landing stations, namely the Sri Racha Cable Landing Station, the Petchaburi Cable Landing Station, and the Songkhla Cable Landing Station.
The undergoing intra-Asia submarine cable system, South-east Asia Japan Cable (SJC) is going to land at the Songkhla Cable Landing Station.
Cable Landing Stations in Myanmar
The SEA-ME-WE 3 (SMW3) is currently the only international submarine cable system reaching Myanmar, landing at the Pyapon Cable Landing Station in Myanmar.
Cable Landing Stations in Brunei
Cable Landing Stations in Brunei
Cable Landing Stations in Sri Lanka
There are two cable landing stations in Sri Lanka, the Mount Lavinia Cable Landing Stations for SMW3 and BLCS cable systems, and the Colombo Cable Landing Station for FALCON, SEA-ME-WE-4,SLT-Dhiraagu and SAFE cable systems.
Cable Landing Stations in Bangladesh
The SEA-ME-WE-4 (SMW4) submarine cable system is currently the sole international optic fiber submarine cable landing in Bangladesh, with a cable landing station at Cox's Bazaar, built and owned by Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company (BSCCL) .
Since the landing of SMW4, the Internet infrastructure in Bangladesh has been significantly improved. The SMW4 is now the main link for the international internet gateway in Bangladesh, and is the truly and sole submarine internet cable in Bangladesh.
Mango, the only private sector international internet gateway (IIG) operator of Bangladesh, is connected to the global internet using the SEA-ME-WE 4 submarine cable system. Mango won its license through an open auction from Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) on February 25, 2008.
The Bangladesh Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (BTRC) issued draft licensing guidelines for two new submarine cable licences in early 2010. Each licensee should build a separate landing station within the general area of Khula-Patuakhali-Barisal-Chittagong, and should provide access, co-location and landing facilities to other submarine cable licensees, as and when required by the BTRC.
Besides the international submarine communication cable connecting Bangladesh, there are three terrestrial cables on India-Bangladesh boarders in Jessore, Sylhet-Comilla and Kurigram which may also bring Bangladesh into the global communication network.